05 Experimental Evaluation of Interventions / 05.05 Use Reversal and Alternating Treatments Designs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 05 Experimental Evaluation of Interventions / 05.05 Use Reversal and Alternating Treatments Designs Deck (21)
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1

An alternating treatments design
could be used with data that are not stable.
could exacerbate sequence effects.
requires stable data prior to changing conditions.
requires an initial baseline condition.

could be used with data that are not stable.



With an alternating treatments design, the experimental condition changes every day, every session, or even within a session. As long as the intervention(s) are powerful enough to cause a consistent separation of the data paths reflecting the two interventions (or intervention and baseline condition), then experimental control is demonstrated. In other words, to demonstrate experimental control, a data path of the target behavior under one condition should consistently reflect a lower rate than another data path of the same behavior under the other condition. If the paths cross, experimental control is compromised. (Bailey & Burch, 2002, pp. 182-186; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 188-191; Poling et al., 1995, pp. 94-96; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 312-318)

2

Using a multi-element design, you want to compare peer mediated reinforcement to teacher mediated reinforcement. Which might you do?
Associate one type of reinforcer with the peers and another type of reinforcer with the teacher.
Keep the reinforcers out of sight until the target behavior occurs.
Have teachers and peers keep the reinforcers in view and with them during their respective conditions.
Have the teachers and peers provide the reinforcers in a different manner.

Keep the reinforcers in view to foster discrimination between the conditions.


You want to foster discrimination between the conditions by associating unique antecedent stimuli with each condition. Teacher vs. peer possession of the reinforcer in sight of the student are two unique antecedents. It makes it readily evident who is delivering the reinforcer. Consequential differences that are not part of the independent variable should never occur. This would be a confound-i.e., you don't know whether behavior is the result of teacher or peer mediated reinforcement or it is a function of another variable. (Bailey & Burch, 2002, pp. 182-186; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 188; Poling et al., 1995, pp. 94-96; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 312-318)

3

Which are synonymous experimental designs?
simultaneous treatments and concurrent schedules
alternating treatments and multiple schedules
multiple schedules and multielement
(all of the others)

all others


ALTERNATING TREATMENTS (multielement, multiple schedule)-rapid alternation between two or more treatments
SIMULTANEOUS TREATMENTS (concurrent schedules)-two or more concurrently operating contingencies; in effect, subject "chooses" the intervention
MULTIPLE BASELINE-staggered implementation of the intervention in a step-wise fashion across subjects, settings, or behaviors
WITHDRAWAL-alternation between baseline and a particular intervention
MULTIPLE TREATMENTS-an intervention is compared to a baseline condition or other interventions
(Bailey & Burch, 2002; Cooper, Heron, & Heward., 1987, pp. 162-218; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 188; Poling et al., 1995)

4

Which ABAB design is exemplified by the following alternating conditions? During A, self-injury results in attention and hands-on activities are ignored. During B, hands-on activities result in attention and self-injury is ignored.
withdrawal only
reversal only
reversal or withdrawal, although reversal is preferred
reversal or withdrawal, although withdrawal is preferred

reversal or withdrawal, although reversal is preferred

It could be characterized as either a reversal or withdrawal design. However, given that opposite behaviors are designated, reversal is the better descriptor. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 177; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 220-221)

5

Which designs are characterized by alternating between one intervention (or baseline) in one condition and a different intervention in another condition?
changing criterion design and withdrawal design
reversal design and changing criterion design
reversal design and withdrawal design
withdrawal design and multiple baseline design

reversal design and withdrawal design

Usually "reversal" and "withdrawal" are used synonymously to describe a design characterized by alternating between one intervention (or baseline) in one condition and a different intervention in another condition. This would be the same as ABAB, ABABA, BABA (etc.) designs. However, sometimes a reversal design is characterized as applying an intervention to an opposite behavior-not just alternating between treatment and non-treatment conditions or one intervention compared to another intervention. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 177; Leitenberg, 1973; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 220-221)

6

With a multielement/alternating treatments design graph, experimental control is demonstrated when
one data path is consistently stable relative to the other data path.
the two data paths increase or decrease in lockstep with each other and at the same levels.
data are stable and then there is an abrupt change in level or trend at the onset of the other condition.
one data path is consistently higher than the other data path.

one data path is consistently higher than the other data path.

When one data path is consistently higher than the other data path, it demonstrates a correspondence between the independent and dependent variables. Because sessions are counterbalanced, it can be concluded that the relationship is a functional one. (Bailey & Burch, 2002, pp. 182-186; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 188-191; Poling et al., 1995, pp. 94-96; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 312-318)

7

Which are synonymous experimental designs?
multiple baseline and multiple schedules
concurrent schedules and simultaneous treatments
multielement and multiple baseline
(all of the others)

concurrent schedules and simultaneous treatments

ALTERNATING TREATMENTS (multielement, multiple schedule)-rapid alternation between two or more treatments
SIMULTANEOUS TREATMENTS (concurrent schedules)-two or more concurrently operating contingencies; in effect, subject "chooses" the intervention
MULTIPLE BASELINE-staggered implementation of the intervention in a step-wise fashion across subjects, settings, or behaviors
WITHDRAWAL-alternation between baseline and a particular intervention
MULTIPLE TREATMENTS-an intervention is compared to a baseline condition or other interventions
(Bailey & Burch, 2002; Cooper, Heron, & Heward., 1987, pp. 162-218; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 188; Poling et al., 1995)

8

Introducing an independent variable, removing it, and introducing another independent variable, and removing it is characteristic of a/an
alternating treatments design.
reversal design.
multielement design.
multiple treatments design.

a multiple treatments design.

ALTERNATING TREATMENTS (multielement, multiple schedule)-rapid alternation between two or more treatments
SIMULTANEOUS TREATMENTS (concurrent schedules)-two or more concurrently operating contingencies; in effect, subject "chooses" the intervention
MULTIPLE BASELINE-staggered implementation of the intervention in a step-wise fashion across subjects, settings, or behaviors
WITHDRAWAL-alternation between baseline and a particular intervention
MULTIPLE TREATMENTS-an intervention is compared to a baseline condition or other interventions
(Bailey & Burch, 2002; Cooper, Heron, & Heward., 1987, pp. 162-218; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 188; Poling et al., 1995)

9

Which design uses a contingency applied to opposite behaviors (e.g., sitting and out-of-seat)?
multi-element design
simultaneous treatments design
reversal design
withdrawal design

reversal

Often "reversal" and "withdrawal" are used synonymously. However, sometimes a reversal design is characterized as applying a contingency to an opposite (or incompatible) behavior-not just alternating between treatment and non-treatment conditions or one intervention compared to another intervention. For example, a true reversal would be praise for being punctual in one condition and praise for being tardy in another condition. Praise for being punctual vs. no response (or being berated) for being tardy would best be described as a withdrawal design, but might still be called a reversal design because many researchers ignore the distinction. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 177; Leitenberg, 1973; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 220-221)

10

Which ABAB design is exemplified by the following alternating conditions? During A, a dog's running is reinforced with water. During B, a dog's running is reinforced with an edible.
withdrawal only
reversal or withdrawal, although reversal is preferred
reversal only
reversal or withdrawal, although withdrawal is preferred

reversal or withdrawal, although withdrawal is preferred


It could be characterized as either a reversal or withdrawal design. However, the interventions are not reinforcing opposite behaviors-they are only using different reinforcers. Therefore, there is not a true reversal of the contingencies (as prescribed for the reversal design by Leitenberg [1973]). However, Leitenberg's recommendation has not been consistently adhered to by researchers. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 177; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 220-221)

11

With the alternating treatments design, discrimination between conditions is important to
minimize sequence effects.
minimize multiple treatment effects.
make up for the lack of a baseline.
minimize multiple treatment interference.

minimize multiple treatment interference.


The quick alternation of conditions may make it difficult for behavior to come under stimulus control of the contingencies operating in the different conditions (i.e., it causes confusion). Stimuli may be placed in the environment to foster such discriminations. For example, the therapist wears a green vest when one condition is in place and a blue vest when the other condition is in place. Note that this is more of an issue when the intervention is consequence based. It is not an issue if antecedent stimuli are naturally part of intervention. For example, in a token economy condition, the presence of tokens is an antecedent stimulus that is discriminable from a non-token economy condition. (Bailey & Burch, 2002, pp. 182-186; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 188; Poling et al., 1995, pp. 94-96; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 312-318)

12

Which sequence of sessions would characterize an alternating treatments design? (For example, "4 baseline, 3 praise" means 4 baseline sessions followed by 3 sessions in which praise is the intervention.)
5 baseline, extinction and praise conducted at the same time
4 baseline, 1 praise, 1 extinction, 2 praise, 2 extinction, 1 praise, etc.
7 praise, 6 extinction, 8 praise
4 baseline, 7 praise, 6 extinction, 6 praise

4 baseline, 1 praise, 1 extinction, 2 praise, 2 extinction, 1 praise, etc.


Alternating treatments design sessions are alternated, either every other one or in a rapidly alternating, counterbalanced fashion. A baseline is often run first, but it is not essential. A baseline condition followed by several sessions of one intervention and then several sessions of another condition would be a withdrawal/reversal design and could take the form ABCB or BCB. A baseline condition followed by an arrangement in which two interventions are implemented concurrently, thus resulting in behavior coming under control of one intervention or the other would be a simultaneous treatments design (aka Concurrent schedules). (Bailey & Burch, 2002; Cooper, Heron, & Heward., 1987, pp. 162-218; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 188-191; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 312-318; Poling et al., 1995)

13

Which ABAB design is exemplified by the following alternating conditions? During A, self-injury and hands-on activity result in no particular response. During B, hands-on activity results in attention and self-injury is ignored.
reversal or withdrawal, although withdrawal is preferred
withdrawal only
reversal only
reversal or withdrawal, although reversal is preferred

reversal or withdrawal, although withdrawal is preferred

It could be characterized as either a reversal or withdrawal design. However, the intervention is not reinforcing the opposite behaviors that are being reinforced in the baseline condition (because it is unclear what is being reinforced during the baseline condition). Therefore, there is not a true reversal of the contingencies (as prescribed for the reversal design by Leitenberg [1973]). (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 177; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 220-221) However, Leitenberg's recommendation has not been consistently adhered to by researchers.

14

Which is synonymous with alternating treatments design?
multiple baseline design
multielement design
multiple treatments design
reversal design

multielement design

ALTERNATING TREATMENTS (multielement, multiple schedule)-rapid alternation between two or more treatments
SIMULTANEOUS TREATMENTS (concurrent schedules)-two or more concurrently operating contingencies; in effect, subject "chooses" the intervention
MULTIPLE BASELINE-staggered implementation of the intervention in a step-wise fashion across subjects, settings, or behaviors
WITHDRAWAL-alternation between baseline and a particular intervention
MULTIPLE TREATMENTS-an intervention is compared to a baseline condition or other interventions
(Bailey & Burch, 2002; Cooper, Heron, & Heward., 1987, pp. 162-218; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 188; Poling et al., 1995)

15

Which are synonymous experimental designs?
alternating treatments and multielement
simultaneous treatments and concurrent schedules
multiple schedules and alternating treatments
(all of the others)

all others

16

With which design will you change the condition every session or nearly every session?
alternating treatments design
reversal design
multiple treatments design
(all of the others)

alternating treatment


ALTERNATING TREATMENTS (multielement, multiple schedule)-rapid alternation between two or more treatments
SIMULTANEOUS TREATMENTS (concurrent schedules)-two or more concurrently operating contingencies; in effect, subject "chooses" the intervention
MULTIPLE BASELINE-staggered implementation of the intervention in a step-wise fashion across subjects, settings, or behaviors
WITHDRAWAL-alternation between baseline and a particular intervention
MULTIPLE TREATMENTS-an intervention is compared to a baseline condition or other interventions
(Bailey & Burch, 2002; Cooper, Heron, & Heward., 1987, pp. 162-218; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 188; Poling et al., 1995)

17

Which are synonymous experimental designs?
multiple treatments and multielement
ABAB and alternating treatments
alternating treatments and multielement
(all of the others)

alternating treatments and multielement

ALTERNATING TREATMENTS (multielement, multiple schedule)-rapid alternation between two or more treatments
SIMULTANEOUS TREATMENTS (concurrent schedules)-two or more concurrently operating contingencies; in effect, subject "chooses" the intervention
MULTIPLE BASELINE-staggered implementation of the intervention in a step-wise fashion across subjects, settings, or behaviors
WITHDRAWAL-alternation between baseline and a particular intervention
MULTIPLE TREATMENTS-an intervention is compared to a baseline condition or other interventions
(Bailey & Burch, 2002; Cooper, Heron, & Heward., 1987, pp. 162-218; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 188; Poling et al., 1995)

18

The alternating treatments design is characterized by
alternation of conditions based on stability of the data.
alternation of conditions each day, each session, or within a session.
two or more concurrently running contingencies.
alternation of conditions based on time.

alternation of conditions each day, each session, or within a session.


With an alternating treatments design, the experimental condition changes every day, every session, or even within a session. A condition is run, then a different condition is run the next time or on a random basis. (Bailey & Burch, 2002; Cooper, Heron, & Heward., 1987, pp. 162-218; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 188-191; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 312-318; Poling et al., 1995)

19

Which is synonymous with multielement design?
multiple treatments design
multiple baseline design
simultaneous treatments design
multiple schedules design

multiple schedules design

20

Which ABAB design is exemplified by the following alternating conditions? During A, points are awarded for addition problems, but not subtraction problems. During B, points are awarded for subtraction problems; but not addition problems.
reversal only
reversal or withdrawal, although withdrawal is preferred
withdrawal only
reversal or withdrawal, although reversal is preferred

reversal or withdrawal, although reversal is preferred

It could be characterized as either a reversal or withdrawal design. However, it is best characterized as a reversal design. The interventions are reinforcing opposite behaviors, which Leitenberg (1973) argues should be designated as a reversal design. However, Leitenberg's recommendation has not been consistently adhered to by researchers. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 177; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 220-221)

21

With the alternating treatments design, multiple treatment interference is addressed by
continuing the baseline.
conducting a component analysis.
making the conditions highly generalizable.
making the conditions highly discriminable.

making the conditions highly discriminable.

The quick alternation of conditions may make it difficult for behavior to come under stimulus control of the contingencies operating in the different conditions (i.e., it causes confusion). Stimuli may be placed in the environment to foster such discriminations. For example, the therapist wears a green vest when one condition is in place and a blue vest when the other condition is in place. Note that this is more of an issue when the intervention is consequence based. It is not an issue if antecedent stimuli are naturally part of intervention. For example, in a token economy condition, the presence of tokens is an antecedent stimulus that is discriminable from a non-token economy condition. (Bailey & Burch, 2002, pp. 182-186; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 188; Poling et al., 1995, pp. 94-96; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 312-318)

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