03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.01 Behavior/Response/Response Class Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.01 Behavior/Response/Response Class Deck (19)
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1

To get attention, an individual sometimes bites his lower hand and at other times bites his arm. Both behaviors
are operantly controlled.
are part of the same response class.
are probably strengthened or weakened together when operant conditioning is employed.
(all of the others)

all others

Similar behaviors that are strengthened or weakened as a result of operant conditioning are collectively called a response class (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 24; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 26) or a functional response class (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, pp. 70-72; Johnston & Pennypacker, 2009, pp. 76).

2

Lifting one's finger
is a behavior only if you could see it.
is not a behavior.
affects the environment.
(all of the others)

slight affect in the environment

3

Select the response.
An instance of face hitting occurred at 2:00 PM on Tuesday.
Face hitting is defined as contacting the face with any part of the hand.
Jumping occurred mostly between 4:00 and 5:00 PM.
A greeting occurs when he approaches and extends a hand.

Correct: An instance of face hitting occurred at 2:00 PM on Tuesday.

4

Topography refers to
the form of a behavior, or what it looks like.
the intensity of a behavior, or how much effort is extended.
duration, or how long a behavior occurs.
the latency between an event and the onset of a behavior.

the form of a behavior, or what it looks like.

5

Select the response.
a single eye wink
self-injurious behavior
repeatedly saying the same thing
flapping all day

a single eye wink
A response is a single occurrence of behavior. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 18; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 26; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, p. 70)

6

Behavior
involves the movement of muscles and glands.
occurs only if another individual is present to observe it.
involves the movement of the muscles only.
(all of the others)

Behavior involves the movement of muscles and glands.


A response is a single instance of a behavior. We target behaviors, but we record responses. While some behavior analysts limit the definition of a response to physical movement (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, p. 363) or the movement of the muscles or glands (Michael, 1993), others (Catania, 1998, p. 10) also include neural activity. Acknowledging the similarity, yet making the distinction, Michael (1993) refers to the latter as a "response analogy." (See also, Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 26.)

7

Generally a response is a single
behavior.
instance of a behavior.
response class.
(all of the others)

instance of a behavior.

A response is a single instance of a behavior. We target behaviors, but we record responses. A response class is a set of topographies that are controlled by the same variables. (See also, Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 26.)

8

Which of the following constitutes an instance of behavior?
falling from a tree
getting sun burn
raising an arm as a result of someone else lifting it
squinting in the sun

squinting in the sun

9

Which of the following can exhibit behavior?
a sleeping dog
a plastic duck bobbing in the water
the government
a dead person

A sleeping dog

Only living organisms behave. This excludes groups of people. For example, the "The school board proposes..." does not constitute an instance of behavior. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 17; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 25; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, pp. 23-26)

10

Behavior can be exhibited by
living organisms and nonliving entities, as long as they are moving.
living single-celled and complex organisms.
anything that moves in space through time.
(all of the others)

living single-celled and complex organisms.

Only living organisms can exhibit behavior. It doesn't matter whether they are simple (e.g., single-celled) or complex (e.g., mammals). (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 17-18; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 25-26; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980 p. 48; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, p. 23)

11

Behaviors that may differ in topography but are collectively strengthened or weakened by operant conditioning form
a topographical response class.
a functional response class.
an operant response class.
a contingency.


functional response class.


Although pushing a door open with your hand or with your foot require different topographies, they are part of the same functional response class because they both result in opening the door. They are not part of the same topographical response class. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 26; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, pp. 70-72)

12

To get attention, sometimes an individual bites his hand and other times he hits people. Both behaviors
are part of the same functional response class.
should have unique consequences to decrease these behaviors.
are part of the same topographical response class.
(all of the others)

are part of the same functional response class.

Behaviors that may differ in topography but are collectively strengthened or weakened by operant conditioning is a functional response class. For example, although pushing a door open with your hand or with your foot require different topographies, they are part of the same functional response class because they both result in opening the door. They are not part of the same topographical response class. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 26; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, pp. 70-72)

13

Which of the following constitutes behavior?
landing on your head
sleep walking
wearing a ring
being thirsty

sleep walking

14

Which is a topographical description?
squints, makes fist
assaults brother
aggravates sister
steals food

squints, makes fist

Topography refers to what the behavior looks like. That is, you could visualize it. You could steal food in a number of ways (e.g., picking it up and running with it, slipping it under your coat). It is the same for aggravating others and hitting. However, "squinting and making a fist" describe the form of the behavior. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 26; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980, pp. 108-109; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, pp. 70-72; Miltenberger, 1997, p. 178)

15

Behavior
has an effect on the environment.
involves movement.
is measurable.
(all of the others)

all others

16

The definition of behavior includes
a relation between an organism and its environment.
what happens in the mind.
cognitive processes.
(all of the others)

a relation between an organism and its environment.

17

Similar behaviors that are strengthened or weakened as a result of operant conditioning are collectively called
a contingency.
an operant class.
a stimulus class.
a response class.

a response class.

18

Which of the following constitutes behavior?
getting a sunburn
stopping a baseball by passively standing in its path
riding a bus
lifting a finger a fraction of an inch

lifting a finger a fraction of an inch

19

The definition of behavior includes
the requirement of measurable change.
movement of some part of the organism.
displacements in space through time.
(all of the others)

all others

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