02 Definition and Characteristics / 02.07 Dependent and Independent Variable, Internal Validity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 02 Definition and Characteristics / 02.07 Dependent and Independent Variable, Internal Validity Deck (16)
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1

Baseline
should have a data collection procedure different than the treatment condition.
should continue if the data indicate a therapeutic trend.
should always be conducted.
(all of the others)

should continue if the data indicate a therapeutic trend.

If behavior is improving, there is no need to implement an intervention. It is contraindicated if conducting a baseline would put the client at an undue risk due to a delay of treatment. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 151-154; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 168)

2

Select the independent variable.
smiles
prompt fading
frequency of whining
number of independent toothbrushing steps completed

prompt fading

3

Select the independent variable.
appropriate greetings
verbal reprimand and response cost
frequency of aggression directed toward peers
frequency of prompted responses

verbal reprimand and response cost

4

Which of the following is NOT a threat to internal validity.
testing
maturation
generalization
history

generalization

History, maturation, and testing are threats to internal validity. Generalization has to do with external validity (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 233-234; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 91-93)

5

Select the dependent variable.
blocking
mechanical restraint
number of bite marks on skin
shaping

number of bite marks on skin

6

Internal validity addresses which question?
Will the results carry over to other individuals?
Are the procedures appropriate given the circumstances?
Is the behavior change due only to the intervention?
Will the results carry over to other settings?

Is the behavior change due only to the intervention?

An experiment is said to have internal validity if you could pinpoint the reason for the behavior change. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 147; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 160; Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991, p. 373; Tawney & Gast, 1984, p. 91)

7

Select the independent variable.
rate of public sexual behavior
hand mouthing
contingent loss of privileges
percent of intervals in which independent mands (requests) occur

contingent loss of privileges

The independent variable is the behavior change procedure or set of procedures. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 129; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980, pp. 27, 39-40, 119-144)

8

Baseline
should not be conducted if it is dangerous to do so.
includes data collection.
precedes planned treatment.
(all of the others)

all others.

9

History as a threat to internal validity refers to
changes within the individual.
influence of multiple test taking.
events that occur during an experiment.
cyclic changes in the data.

events that occur during an experiment.

10

Select the dependent variable.
differential reinforcement of other behavior
response cost
duration of tantrum episode
punishment

duration of tantrum episode

11

Select the independent variable.
number of aggressive acts
number of correct responses on math test
frequency of self-injury
differential reinforcement of alternative behavior

differential reinforcement of alternative behavior

12

Select the independent variable.
rate of independent mands (requests)
blocking
frequency of public sexual behavior
duration of hand mouthing

blocking

13

Baseline
provides a comparison condition.
is what is going on prior to planned intervention.
could include an intervention.
(all of the others)

All others

14

Which of the following is NOT a threat to internal validity.
maturation
unexpected results
"bootleg" reinforcement
attrition

unexpected results

Unexpected results are NOT a threat to internal validity. (cf. Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 233; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 91-93)

15

Select the dependent variable.
positive reinforcement
positive practice
frequency of safe bike riding
extinction

frequency of safe bike riding

16

Which of the following is NOT a threat to internal validity.
multiple intervention interference
maintenance
instability
loss of participants

Maintenance.

MATURATION-changes within the individual that occur during the experiment
SETTING CONFOUNDS-uncontrolled aspects of the natural environment
TESTING-repeated testing
PROCEDURAL (TREATMENT) INTEGRITY-treatment not being implemented as planned; including procedural drift, which occurs when implementation of a procedure deteriorates over time
LOSS OF SUBJECTS-participants drop out (attrition)
MULTIPLE INTERVENTION INTERFERENCE-interaction of multipletreatments
INSTABILITY-variability in behavior
INTERVENING WHEN BEHAVIOR CHANGES-coincidence
INSTRUMENTATION-inaccurate measurement by devices or human observers
(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 232-237; Tawney & Gast, 1984, pp. 91-93)

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