03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.13 Intraverbals, Contingency-Shaped Beh, Rule Governed Beh Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.13 Intraverbals, Contingency-Shaped Beh, Rule Governed Beh Deck (27)
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1

Which is an intraverbal?
writing "1+1" as a result of hearing "1+1"
imagining (picturing) a sunny day and saying "sunny day"
saying "3" as a result of someone saying "1+1"
saying "3" as a result of someone saying "1+2=3"

saying "3" as a result of someone saying "1+1"
Intraverbals are controlled by verbal stimuli with no point-to-point correspondence with their controlling stimuli. The statement does not have to be accurate to be an intraverbal. For example, writing "Lincoln" as a result of someone saying, "Who is buried in Grant's tomb?" is an intraverbal. Note also in this example that the stimulus and response are not in the same form. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 531-532; Skinner, 1957, pp. 71-78)

2

A boy pulls a girl's hair so she will turn around and verbally threaten him. Pulling the hair is
an indirect-acting contingency that does not control behavior.
an example of rule-governed behavior.
a direct-acting contingency that controls behavior.
not a direct-acting contingency.

a direct-acting contingency that controls behavior.

Pulling the girl's hair gets an immediate consequence. Therefore, it is direct acting.

DIRECT-ACTING CONTINGENCIES-effective, immediate, rule-governed behavior is not involved

INDIRECT-ACTING CONTINGENCIES-effective, delayed, rule-governed behavior is involved

NOT DIRECT-ACTING-delayed, may be effective (indirect acting) or ineffective

(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 286-287; Malott, Whaley, & Malott, 1997, pp. 338, 370)

3

According to Malott, Whaley, and Malott (1997), a rule
statement that controls behavior is always indirect-acting.
is an establishing operation.
establishes rule-breaking as an aversive motivating condition.
(all of the others)

all others

According to Malott, Whaley, and Malott (1997), a rule is an establishing operation that establishes rule-breaking as an aversive motivating condition. For example, stating the rule, "I will study one hour each day on the certification exam," results in an establishing operation. It increases the value of having studied. The consequence of studying is perhaps positive self-statements and elimination of the EO. Not following the rule to study results in guilt and anxiety. Rules that control behavior act via indirect contingencies-i.e., through delayed consequences. (Malott, Whaley, & Malott, 1997, p. 366)

4

According to Malott, Whaley, and Malott (1997), a rule
is a cognitive operation.
establishes rule-following as an aversive motivating condition.
establishes rule-breaking as an aversive motivating condition.
is an establishing mand.

establishes rule-breaking as an aversive motivating condition.

5

Intraverbals
are primarily controlled by EOs.
have point-to-point correspondence with their controlling stimuli.
do not have point-to-point correspondence with their controlling stimuli.
are primarily controlled by nonverbal stimuli.

do NOT have point-to-point correspondence with their controlling stimuli.

6

Which is an intraverbal?
saying "apple" as a result of someone holding up an apple and saying, "Name something you eat," after "Name something you eat," alone did not result in a response
seeing an odorless covered pie (no apples showing) and saying "apple"
saying "apple" as a result of someone saying, "Name something you eat"
(all of the others)

saying "apple" as a result of someone saying, "Name something you eat"

7

Intraverbals
are controlled by verbal stimuli.
have point-to-point correspondence with their controlling stimuli.
require that the stimulus and response be of the same form.
are due to a history of precise contingencies of reinforcement.

are controlled by verbal stimuli.
MANDS-controlled by EOs

TACTS-controlled by nonverbal stimuli

ECHOICS-controlled by verbal stimuli with point-to-point correspondence

INTRAVERBALS-controlled by verbal stimuli WITH NO point-to-point correspondence with their controlling stimuli.

(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 526-547; Skinner, 1957, pp. 71-78)

8

One type of delayed outcome that interferes with behavior control is
small and cumulative.
large and singular.
large and cumulative.
small and singular.

small and cumulative.

Malott, Whaley, & Malott (1997, pp. 362-378) theorize that our behavior is controlled by delayed outcomes that are probable and sizeable, but not when they are small and cumulative, or are improbable. For example, procrastinating on changing your oil on a regular basis will eventually result in engine problems. Each instance of procrastination has a small, deleterious effect on your engine. It is the cumulative effect of procrastination leads to problems. An improbable delayed outcome is exemplified by getting ill from not washing your hands before meals or getting injured from not wearing your seat belt.

9

Delayed outcomes that are associated with control of behavior have
probable and sizable outcomes.
sizable and long-lasting outcomes.
probable and long-lasting outcomes.
sizable and tenuous outcomes.

probable and sizable outcomes.
Outcomes associated with control of behavior are probable and sizable. An outcome that is likely to happen and is significant is far more likely to be associated with behavior control than one that is not too likely or is cumulative. For example, obtaining a graduate degree is a probable outcome with significant rewards. Rules related to this outcome occasion many hours of hard work that yields little immediate reinforcement. (Malott, Whaley, & Malott, 1997, pp. 366-380)

10

Delayed outcomes that are associated with control of behavior have
sizable and long duration outcomes.
probable and long-lasting outcomes.
a high likelihood of occurring.
a high likelihood of not occurring.

a high likelihood of occurring.

Outcomes associated with control of behavior are probable and sizable. An outcome that is likely to happen and is significant is far more likely to be associated with behavior control than one that is not too likely or is cumulative. For example, obtaining a graduate degree is a probable outcome with significant rewards. Rules related to this outcome occasion many hours of hard work that yields little immediate reinforcement. (Malott, Whaley, & Malott, 1997, pp. 366-380)

11

Taking the stairs instead of the elevator to improve fitness represents a/an
small cumulative outcome.
improbable outcome.
small singular outcome.
improbable cumulative outcome.

small cumulative outcome.
The probability of improving fitness (at least a little) is high if one regularly takes the stairs instead of an elevator. However, each instance of taking the stairs improves fitness an infinitesimal amount. It is only the cumulative effect of this behavior that yields a significant outcome. At best, such outcomes tend to exert weak control over behavior. (Malott, Whaley, & Malott, 1997, pp. 362-378)

12

You often decide to study ABA, then say something nice about yourself when done. With respect to deciding to "study" (and assuming the compliment exerts control over studying), this is
an indirect-acting contingency.
delayed self-gratification.
an indirect-acting contingency that doesn't control behavior.
a direct-acting contingency that controls behavior.

an indirect-acting contingency.
The praise statement is far removed from the decision to study. Therefore, it is not a direct-acting contingency. The fact that it exerts control over behavior indicates that it is an indirect-acting contingency.

DIRECT-ACTING CONTINGENCIES-effective, immediate, rule-governed behavior is not involved

INDIRECT-ACTING CONTINGENCIES-effective, delayed, rule-governed behavior is involved

NOT DIRECT-ACTING-delayed, may be effective (indirect acting) or ineffective

(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 286-287; Malott, Whaley, & Malott, 1997, pp. 338, 370)
Cl

13

You've been told that you must change the oil in your car to maintain the engine, but you don't. This contingency is
not direct acting.
direct acting.
not effective, but is rule-governed.
indirect acting.

not direct acting.

DIRECT-ACTING CONTINGENCIES-effective, immediate, rule-governed behavior is not involved

INDIRECT-ACTING CONTINGENCIES-effective, delayed, rule-governed behavior is involved

NOT DIRECT-ACTING-delayed, may be effective (indirect acting) or ineffective

(Malott, Whaley, & Malott, 1997, pp. 338, 370)

14

Even though you've never run out of gas, you fill the tank when the gauge indicates it is low. With respect to the behavior of filling the tank, running out of gas exemplifies
a direct-acting contingency.
an indirect-acting contingency that does not control behavior.
(cannot determine)
an indirect-acting contingency.

indirect-acting contingency because the consequence is delayed.

Whether or not you've ever experienced the consequence of running out of gas, the behavior of filling the tank and that consequence is too far removed to control the behavior directly. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 259-260; Malott, Whaley, & Malott, 1997, pp. 338, 370)

15

Rule-governed behavior is
highly theoretical.
well documented in humans, but not in animals.
a phenomena that enjoys extensive empirical support.
synonymous with cognitive behavior.

highly theoretical.

Theories of rule-governed behavior follow logically from basic principles and Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. However, at this time, it does not enjoy much empirical support. (Malott, Whaley, & Malott, 1997, p. 365; Michael, 1993, p. 88)

16

A type of delayed outcome that interferes with behavior control is
cumulative.
small.
improbable.
(all of the others)

all

Malott, Whaley, & Malott (1997, pp. 362-378) theorize that our behavior is controlled by delayed outcomes that are probable and sizeable, but not when they are small and cumulative, or are improbable. For example, procrastinating on changing your oil on a regular basis will eventually result in engine problems. Each instance of procrastination has a small, deleterious effect on your engine. It is the cumulative effect of procrastination leads to problems. An improbable delayed outcome is exemplified by getting ill from not washing your hands before meals or getting injured from not wearing your seat belt.

17

You ran out of gas once and now you fill the tank when the gauge indicates it is low. With respect to the behavior of filling the tank, running out of gas is
(cannot determine)
a direct-acting contingency that controls behavior.
an indirect-acting contingency that does not control behavior.
not a direct-acting contingency.

All indirect-acting contingencies, by definition, are effective.) 111

Whether or not you've ever experienced the consequence of running out of gas, the behavior of filling the tank or running out are too far removed from each other to control the behavior directly. That is, the gas gauge needle pointing to "low" exerts control over the behavior of filling the tank. Reading the needle is a form of textual behavior that serves as an EO, increasing the value of gasoline. Getting gasoline is under the control of reading the needle-not running out of gas. (cf. Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 259-260)

DIRECT-ACTING CONTINGENCIES-effective, immediate, rule-governed behavior is not involved

INDIRECT-ACTING CONTINGENCIES-effective, delayed, rule-governed behavior is involved

NOT DIRECT-ACTING-delayed, may be effective (indirect acting) or ineffective

18

Intraverbals are primarily controlled by
MOs.
nonverbal stimuli.
verbal stimuli.
verbal responses.

verbal stimuli.

19

Tooth decay due to not flossing represents
improbable cumulative outcome.
small cumulative outcome.
small singular outcome.
improbable outcome.

small cumulative outcome.

The probability of tooth decay is high if teeth are not flossed. However, each instance of procrastination results in an infinitesimal amount of plaque build up or decay. It is only the cumulative effect of this behavior that yields a significant outcome. At best, such outcomes tend to exert weak control over behavior. (Malott, Whaley, & Malott, 1997, pp. 362-378)

20

Which is an intraverbal?
saying "blue" as a result of someone saying "blue."
saying "blue" as a result of seeing a red, white, and blue flag.
saying "blue" as a result of someone seeing a blue car.
saying "blue" as a result of someone saying "red, white, and."

saying "blue" as a result of someone saying "red, white, and."

21

According to Malott, Whaley, and Malott (1997), a rule
is a cognitive operation.
is an establishing operation.
establishes rule-following as an aversive motivating condition.
establishes rule-breaking as a positive motivating condition.

s an establishing operation.

According to Malott, Whaley, and Malott (1997), a rule is an establishing operation that establishes rule-breaking as an aversive motivating condition. For example, stating the rule, "I will study one hour each day on the certification exam," results in an establishing operation. It increases the value of having studied. The consequence of studying is perhaps, positive self-statements and elimination of the EO. Not following the rule to study results in guilt and anxiety. (Malott, Whaley, & Malott, 1997, p. 366)

22

A type of delayed outcome that interferes with behavior control is that which is
unlikely.
certain.
large.
(all of the others)

unlikley
Malott, Whaley, & Malott (1997, pp. 362-378) theorize that our behavior is controlled by delayed outcomes that are probable and sizeable, but not when they are small and cumulative, or are improbable. For example, procrastinating on changing your oil on a regular basis will eventually result in engine problems. Each instance of procrastination has a small, deleterious effect on your engine. It is the cumulative effect of procrastination leads to problems. An improbable delayed outcome is exemplified by getting ill from not washing your hands before meals or getting injured from not wearing your seat belt.

23

Which is an intraverbal?
saying "apple" and signing "apple" as result of holding up an apple
saying "apple" and signing "apple" as result of someone saying "Name something you eat."
feeling pain and then writing "hurts"
(cannot determine)

saying "apple" and signing "apple" as result of someone saying "Name something you eat."

24

Delayed outcomes that are associated with control of behavior generally are
moderate.
small and cumulative.
intermittent.
large.

probable and sizable (large).

Outcomes associated with control of behavior are probable and sizable. An outcome that is likely to happen and is significant is far more likely to be associated with behavior control than one that is not too likely or is cumulative. For example, obtaining a graduate degree is a probable outcome with significant rewards. Rules related to this outcome occasion many hours of hard work that yields little immediate reinforcement. (Malott, Whaley, & Malott, 1997, pp. 366-380)

25

Which is an intraverbal?
saying "chair" after hearing "seat"
saying "E" after hearing "A, B, C, D"
saying "E" after hearing "Name the fifth letter in the alphabet"
(all of the others)

all

26

Getting brain injury from riding a motorcycle without a helmet represents
a small cumulative outcome.
a small singular outcome.
an improbable outcome.
an improbable cumulative outcome.

an improbable outcome.

Most people who ride motorcycles without helmets do not get brain injury. It is an improbable outcome resulting from a major accident. It is not something that occurs gradually. Therefore, it is not a cumulative outcome. However, the consequence is extremely large. The improbability of brain injury weakens control, yet the significance of the consequences strengthens it. (Malott, Whaley, & Malott, 1997, pp. 362-378)

27

According to Malott, Whaley, and Malott (1997), a rule that exerts control over behavior
is always an indirect-acting contingency.
is either a direct or indirect-acting contingency.
is always a direct-acting contingency.
(all of the others)

always an indirect-acting contingency.

DIRECT-ACTING CONTINGENCIES-effective,immediate, rule-governed behavior is not involved

INDIRECT-ACTING CONTINGENCIES-effective, delayed, rule-governed behavior is involved

NOT DIRECT-ACTING-delayed, may be effective (indirect acting) or ineffective

(Malott, Whaley, & Malott, 1997, pp. 338, 370)

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