04 Behavioral Assessment / 04.04 Direct Observation, Conditional Probability, ABC Narrative Data Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 04 Behavioral Assessment / 04.04 Direct Observation, Conditional Probability, ABC Narrative Data Deck (23)
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1

Consequences
may have no influence on behavior.
are the result of behavior.
may be reinforcers.
(all of the others)

all

2

One method of analysis of direct observation data is
naturalistic analogue assessment.
lag sequential analysis.
lag simultaneous analysis.
(all of the others)

lag sequential analysis.
Direct observation refers to observing and recording behavior in the natural environment. Two common methods are antecedent, behavior, consequence (ABC) data collection and scatter plot data collection. Another method is lag sequential analysis, which involves recording either occurrence or duration data on a variety of behaviors and events which may influence behavior. Conditional probabilities between events and behavior are calculated, thus revealing correlations that may indicate functions. (Shores et al, 1999)

3

At the beginning of a consultation, you want to define the problem behavior. The best source to consult might be
ABC narrative recordings.
past research.
your supervisor.
functional analysis data.

ABC narrative recordings.

4

In vivo ABC data indicate: staff request -> tantrums -> withdrawal request. A controlling relation is
experimentally demonstrated between tantrums and escape from requests.
only correlationally demonstrated.
only experimentally demonstrated between staff person's presence and tantrums.
experimentally demonstrated between requests and tantrums.

only correlationally demonstrated.

Experimental control (i.e., demonstration of a functional relation) requires systematic manipulation of the environment. However, data from in vivo observation may yield only correlations. One cannot assert experimental control without employing systematic manipulations. (Carr et al, 1999, p. 11; Iwata et al, 2000, p. 64; Neef & Peterson, 2007, pp. 508-509)

5

Experimental conditions repeatedly yield data that indicate: staff request -> tantrums -> withdrawal request. A functional relation is
demonstrated between staff person's presence and tantrums.
not demonstrated.
demonstrated between tantrums and withdrawal of requests.
demonstrated between requests and escape from requests.

demonstrated between tantrums and withdrawal of requests.

A functional relation requires systematic manipulation of the environment and application of experimental methodology, which was used here. It requires a repeated demonstration of a change in the environment corresponding to a change in behavior. Observation in vivo may yield correlations, but not a functional relation (Carr et al, 1999, p. 11; Iwata et al, 2000, p. 64; Neef & Peterson, 2007, pp. 508-509).

6

Types of descriptive functional assessment include
lag sequential analysis.
scatter plot.
ABC data quantification.
(all of the others)


all othrs
Direct observation refers to observing and recording behavior in the natural environment. Two common methods are antecedent, behavior, consequence (ABC) data collection and scatter plot data collection. (Shores et al, 1999). A lesser known method is lag sequential analysis (Thompson & Borrero, 2011, pp. 199-200).

7

Consequences
may have no influence on behavior.
are the result of antecedents.
sometimes precede the target behavior.
are punishers.

may have no influence on behavior.

Consequences are the result of a behavior. They do not necessarily exert control over future occurrences of the behavior. For example, a runner gets knee pain when he runs. However, the knee pain is not reinforcing running-other consequences reinforce it. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, p. 19; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 31-46; Miltenberger, 2001, p. 232; Michael, 1993)

8

Which consequence is most likely to influence future occurrences?
one that reinforces a target behavior
one that follows the behavior by three minutes or more
one that immediately precedes a target behavior
(all of the others)

one that reinforces a target behavior
By definition, consequences that increase a behavior are reinforcers. Those that immediately follow a behavior are more likely to exert a controlling influence over it in the presence of the same stimuli. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, p. 19; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 31-33; Miltenberger, 2001, p. 232; Michael, 1993)

9

Antecedents
do not necessarily control the target behavior.
precede the target behavior.
are important to analyzing the function of a target behavior.
(all of the others)

all of the others
By definition, antecedents precede behavior. However, they do not necessarily control the behavior-they may be collateral (coincidental) events. Antecedents are important to analyzing the function of a target behavior. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 28-33; O'Neill et al, 1997, p. 39)

10

In direct observation, a mathematical analysis, the extent to which a particular event will regularly precede or follow another event, is a/an
correlational analysis.
conditional probability.
correlational probability.
empirical probability.

conditional probability.

A calculation of the probability that a particular behavior will follow an antecedent or that a particular consequence will follow a behavior is a conditional probability. (Iwata, et al, 2000, p. 74; Shores et al, 1999)

11

ABC narrative recording
reliably yields correlations between antecedents, behaviors, and consequences.
is well suited as an aid in developing operational definitions.
is a reliable measurement methodology.
(all of the others)

is well suited as an aid in developing operational definitions.
Due to reliability issues, bias, a lack of a data summarization methodology, and the inclusion of circumstances only when the target behavior occurs, ABC narrative recording is best suited as an aid in developing operational definitions and measurement procedures. (Iwata et al, 2000, pp. 76-77; Neef & Peterson, 2007, p. 509)

12

Which antecedent is most likely to exert control over behavior?
one that immediately precedes a target behavior
one that reinforces a target behavior
one that precedes a target behavior by three minutes
(all of the others)

one that immediately precedes a target behavior

13

An assumption of ABC data quantification is that
a causal relationship is demonstrated by consistent antecedent-behavior patterns.
a causal relationship is demonstrated by consistent behavior-consequence patterns.
a functional relationship can be demonstrated experimentally.
a correlational relationship suggests a functional relationship.

a correlational relationship suggests a functional relationship.

Relationships between antecedents, behaviors, and consequences suggest that these events MAY be causally related. However, such observations in the absence of experimental controls are correlational and not necessarily causal. (Iwata et al, 2000, pp. 72-73; Neef & Peterson, 2007, pp. 508-509)

14

The validity of conclusions drawn from direct observation data is most likely to be threatened
by behaviors being maintained on a rich schedule of reinforcement.
if the behavior occurs at various rates across observation sessions.
by behaviors being maintained on a thin schedule of reinforcement.
by behaviors being interrupted with consequences that have a reinforcing effect.

by behaviors being maintained on a thin schedule of reinforcement.

Behaviors maintained on a thin schedule are infrequently reinforced. Therefore, there would be a weak relationship between the behavior and its consequence(s). For example, behavior maintained by attention may yield data that indicate that out of 20 occurrences, 16 resulted in no reinforcing consequence (cf. Iwata, et al, 2000, p. 74).

15

Direct observation may include
lag simultaneous analysis.
ABC data collection.
naturalistic analogue assessment.
(all of the others)

abc data

16

ABC narrative recording
may not yield correlations with conditions prior to and following the behavior.
is best suited as an aid in developing operational definitions.
has questionable reliability.
(all of the others)

all of others

Due to reliability issues, bias, a lack of a data summarization methodology, and the inclusion of conditions only when the target behavior occurs, ABC narrative recording is best suited as an aid in developing operational definitions and measurement procedures. (Iwata et al, 2000, pp. 76-77; Neef & Peterson, 2007, p. 509)

17

ABC data collected in vivo consistently indicate: no interaction -> self-injury -> prompt to stop self-injury. A functional relation is
demonstrated between no interaction and self-injury.
demonstrated between self-injury and prompt to stop self-injury.
demonstrated between no interaction and prompt to stop self-injury.
not demonstrated.

not demonstrated.

A functional relation requires systematic manipulation of the environment and application of experimental methodology. Observation in vivo may yield correlations, but not functional relations (Carr et al, 1999, p. 11; Iwata et al, 2000, p. 64; Neef & Peterson, 2007, pp. 508-509).

18

Antecedents
reinforce behavior.
follow a target behavior.
are reinforced when a target behavior occurs in the future.
precede a target behavior.

precede a target behavior.

19

An ill lady is asked to begin her laundry. On the way, another resident passes her and the ill lady hits her. The resident hits her back. Which would you record as the CONSEQUENCE of the aggression?
hit other resident
resident passes
lady is ill
getting hit back

getting hit back

20

ABC data collection involves recording the
antecedent, behavior, and reinforcer.
antecedent, rate of the behavior, and consequence.
antecedent, behavior, and consequence.
answer, best performance, and reward.

antecedent, behavior, and consequence.

21

A conditional probability is
a qualitative analysis of the conditions under which a behavior occurs.
analogous to an experimental analysis.
provides an empirical analysis.
a mathematical analysis of the predictability of one event following another event.

a mathematical analysis of the predictability of one event following another event.

Calculation of the probability that a particular behavior will follow an antecedent or that a particular consequence will follow a behavior is a conditional probability. Determining conditional probabilities is the focus of lag sequential analysis. (Iwata, et al, 2000, p. 74; Shores et al, 1999)

22

The validity of conclusions from direct observation data may be threatened
by behaviors with consequences that have no reinforcing effect.
if the behavior occurs at various rates across observation sessions.
if the behavior does not have a discrete onset and offset.
by behaviors being maintained on a rich schedule of reinforcement.

by behaviors with consequences that have no reinforcing effect.

Consider a behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement in a setting in which a caregiver is required to interrupt that behavior. Direct observation data would suggest an attention function-an erroneous conclusion. (Iwata, et al, 2000, p. 75; Neef & Peterson, 2007, pp. 508-509

23

An ill lady is asked to begin her laundry. On the way, another resident passes her and the ill lady hits her. The resident hits her back. Which would you record as the immediate ANTECEDENT of the aggression?
getting hit back
resident passes her
lady is ill
asked to begin laundry

resident passes her

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