04 Behavioral Assessment / 04.01 Descriptive Assessment - Multiple Func, Topography, Resp Class, Theory, Matching Law Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 04 Behavioral Assessment / 04.01 Descriptive Assessment - Multiple Func, Topography, Resp Class, Theory, Matching Law Deck (19)
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1

A high rate of SIB, particularly during unstructured activities and during a difficult class, may indicate
an escape function.
automatic reinforcement and attention functions.
an attention function.
automatic reinforcement and escape functions.

automatic reinforcement and escape functions.

Problem behaviors could serve multiple functions. A high rate in the absence of structure is often associated with an automatic reinforcement function. A high rate during demand conditions is often associated with an escape/avoidance function. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, pp. 229-280; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 500-524)

2

Response class theory suggests that interventions should address the
high frequency elements of the response class.
behavior through antecedent control.
entire response class, including high- and low-frequency behaviors.
component of the response class that is socially relevant.

entire response class, including high- and low-frequency behaviors.

Response class theory and research suggest that interventions should address the entire response class. If high- and low-frequency behaviors are of the same response class, they are controlled by the same variables and should be similarly evaluated and treated. For example, aggressive gestures should be treated the same as aggressive acts. Therefore, it follows that assessment procedures should focus on all members of the response class. Compared to analyzing high intensity behaviors only, this facilitates the assessment by having additional instances to evaluate. (Sprague & Horner, 1999)

3

With respect to the matching law, the value of the reinforcer could refer to
competing.
primary vs. secondary reinforcement.
quality.
(all of the others)

quality ...Value could refer to quality, rate, amount, latency.

When conducting a functional assessment on a low frequency, high intensity behavior, consider the value of the reinforcer it produces, particularly relative to its high frequency, low intensity counterparts. High frequency, low intensity behaviors may produce reinforcement less often (rate), in lesser amounts, and of lower quality than its low frequency, high intensity counterparts. For example, a grocery store tantrum may reliably and immediately result a in big candy bar, whereas a little whining may only result in the promise of maybe getting a cookie when the child gets home. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp 318-319; Malott & Suarez, 2004, pp. 329-330; Martin & Pear, 2003, pp. 82-84; Sprague & Horner, 1999)

4

When conducting a functional assessment, the matching law can be helpful in analyzing
variables that determine the relative rates of members of a response class.
the variables controlling social skills.
the functions of behaviors.
(all of the others)

variables that determine the relative rates of members of a response class.

These variables determine the relative rates of members of a response class, which could be particularly helpful when analyzing low frequency behavior. Consider a child who exhibits low rate, severe SIB, but also exhibits frequent verbal refusals. Both behaviors may be of the same response class in that they both remove demands. An analysis of the conditions under which refusals occur may shed light on the variables that influence SIB. For example, it may be the case that refusals occur after meals, but SIB occurs before meals or when the child is hungry. (Sprague & Horner, 1999)

5

Problem behaviors are frequently a function of
attention, access to an activity or tangible item, escape, aggression, self-injury.
access to a tangible items, escape, avoidance, self-injury, automatic reinforcement.
escape, attention, stereotypy, and access to an activity or tangible item.
automatic reinforcement, escape, attention, and access to an activity or tangible item.

automatic reinforcement, escape, attention, and access to an activity or tangible item.

6

When conducting a functional assessment, the matching law can be helpful in analyzing
the variables controlling low frequency behaviors.
differential rates of various members of the response class.
variables that influence relative response rates.
(all of the others)

All others

These variables determine the relative rates of members of a response class, which could be particularly helpful when analyzing low frequency behavior. Consider a child who exhibits low rate, severe SIB, but also exhibits frequent verbal refusals. Both behaviors may be of the same response class in that they both remove demands. An analysis of the conditions under which refusals occur may shed light on the variables that influence SIB. For example, it may be the case that refusals occur after meals, but SIB occurs before meals or when the child is hungry. (Sprague & Horner, 1999)

7

Problem behaviors are frequently a function of
escape, attention, automatic reinforcement, and access to an activity or tangible item.
escape, avoidance, access to a tangible item, self-injury, automatic reinforcement.
access to an activity or tangible item, attention, escape, aggression, self-injury.
escape, attention, stereotypy, and access to an activity or tangible items.

escape, attention, automatic reinforcement, and access to an activity or tangible item.

8

Low frequency, high intensity behaviors can be addressed
only by teaching a functionally equivalent behavior.
by treating high- and low-frequency behaviors of the same response class regardless of intensity.
only by conducting an assessment and intervention independent of their high frequency low-intensity counterparts serving the same function.
by treating similar behaviors under the control of other variables and part of other response classes.

by treating high frequency, low intensity behaviors of the same response class.

Although teaching a functionally equivalent behavior is almost always the most parsimonious strategy, it is not always possible. However, when intervening on a behavior, it is important to address all members of the response class. That is, intervene on all the topographies (regardless of frequency and intensity) that are under the control of the same set of variables. (Sprague & Horner, 1999)

9

Hypothetically, self-injury may sometimes function to
release endogenous neurons.
release anger.
achieve homeostasis.
(all of the others)

Homeostasis (sensory regulation) hypothesizes that the organism seeks to maintain a biologically determined level of stimulation.

Self-injury could serve wide ranging functions from, hypothetically, the release of endogenous opiates (resulting in a natural "high") (Carr et al, 1999, p. 11) to accessing a stuffed animal. Another possible function is homeostasis (sensory regulation), which hypothesizes that the organism seeks to maintain a biologically determined level of stimulation (Repp, 1999, p. 241). There is no empirical support for release of anger as a function.

10

With respect to the matching law, the value of the reinforcer could refer to
amount.
quality.
rate.
(all of the others)

all

11

Problem behaviors
can only serve one function at a time.
can serve multiple functions.
can serve multiple functions, but only if all functions are either positively reinforced or negatively reinforced.
always have a predominant function.

can serve multiple functions.

Problem behaviors could serve a variety of functions. For example, a single behavior could serve the function of accessing coffee, avoiding social interactions, avoiding prompts to do ADL chores, gaining attention, etc. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, pp. 229-280; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 514-516; Iwata et al, 2000, p. 71)

12

Which of the following most likely suggests a function?
Scratching results in relief from itching.
Falling during walking often results in a bruise.
Masturbation results in others pretending it doesn't happen.
Hitting others always results in remorse.

Scratching results in relief from itching.

Identifying a function is the same as identifying a behavior's maintaining reinforcer. A function is the stimulus change that is the reason why the individual engages in the behavior. Examples include getting attention, escaping tasks, and seeing the teacher get angry. Although functions usually involve stimulus changes that are observable, they sometimes involve private events that only the individual experiences; examples include a release of endorphins and sensory stimulation. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, p. 231; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 500-524; Michael, 1993)

13

Theoretically, self-injury may sometimes function to
achieve heterostasis.
release endogenous opiates.
release anger.
(all of the others)

release endogenous opiates.

Self-injury could serve wide ranging functions from, theoretically, the release of endogenous opiates (resulting in a natural "high") (Carr et al, 1999, p. 11) to accessing a stuffed animal. Achieving homeostasis-not heterostasis-hypothesizes that the organism seeks to maintain a level of stimulation that is biologically determined (Repp, 1999, p. 241). There is no empirical support for release of anger as a function.

14

Problem behaviors are frequently a function of
attention, escape, automatic reinforcement, and access to an activity or tangible items.
access to an activity or tangible item, attention, escape, aggression, self-injury.
attention, stereotypy, escape, and access to an activity or tangible items.
escape, avoidance, access to a tangible item, self-injury, automatic reinforcement.

attention, escape, automatic reinforcement, and access to an activity or tangible items.

15

According to the matching law, low intensity (low effort) behaviors that result in the same reinforcement as high intensity (high effort) behaviors would occur
at approximately equal rates.
less often than the high intensity behaviors.
at the same rate, but would be a function of the establishing operation.
more often than the high intensity behaviors.

more often than the high intensity behaviors.

The matching law maintains that an organism would use the easiest method to obtain reinforcement. (Sprague & Horner, 1999)

16

The matching law maintains that members of a response class will be exhibited
as a function of the establishing operation.
in proportion to the relative control by their antecedents.
in proportion to the relative value of their consequences.
(all of the others)

in proportion to the relative value of their consequences.

For example, for correct responses during class discussions, a teacher gives out tokens on an interval schedule. On average, she gives a token for a correct response after every 3 minutes for subtraction questions, but after every 6 minutes for addition questions. Assuming no other reinforcers are operative, one would expect correct responding to occur at twice the rate for subtraction questions relative to addition questions. (Catania, 1998, pp. 188-190, 396; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 318-319; Malott & Suarez, 2004, pp. 329-330; Martin & Pear, 2003, pp. 82-84; Sprague & Horner, 1999)

17

Which of the following most likely suggests a function?
Running always results in sweating.
Hitting others always results in remorse.
Scratching results from a change in soap.
Masturbation often results in an orgasm.

Masturbation often results in an orgasm.

18

Complaining that sometimes results in the withdrawal of a demand might occur more often than aggression that always results in the withdrawal of a demand if
complaining takes less effort.
aggression could be executed in less time.
aggression takes less effort.
the establishing operation is present when aggression occurs.

complaining takes less effort.

19

Self-injury may sometimes function to
access a TV show.
access tangible items.
produce sensory stimulation.
(all of the others)

all others

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