Flashcards in 1.2 Demography - Reasons for decline in birth rate & fertility Deck (17)
Declining mortality - in 1902 what percentage of all deaths were babies under 1?
Declining mortality - in 2005 what percentage of all deaths were babies under 1?
Less than 1%
Declining mortality - families no longer need large numbers of children to ensure what?
They survive adulthood
Economic factors - in the C19th children were views as what by working class parents?
Economic assets - they could bring in money and support parents in old age
Economic factors - children have now become a financial burden to parents, why?
Children dependent on parents to school leaving age
More young people going to uni
Economic factors - what proportion of parents delay having a child due to cuts in benefits and increased cost of having children?
Individualisation - individuals seeks a life in which they can do what?
Construct their own lifestyle and relationship
Individualisation - people are no longer tied to the social norms that you should do what at a certain point?
Marry and have kids
Individualisation - women now choose careers over what?
Settling down and having children
Individualisation - children and marriage are seen as a risk - who would talk about this?
Beck and beck gurnshiem - risk society
Contraception and abortion - people have the opportunity to do what?
Control and plan the number of children they have
Changing attitudes - from the 1870s in the middle and working class small families were viewed as what?
Way to control living standards
Changing attitudes - since the 20th century small families have become what?
Changing attitudes - in the past being childless was viewed as unfortunate but now it is viewed as what?
A lifestyle option
Women's opportunities- in the last century there has been massive expansion in what?
Women's opportunities in education and employment
Women's opportunities- women can delay having a family until what?
They have completed education and established a career