Flashcards in 2.2 Feminists On Gender Inequality Deck (65)
(Waves) what did the first wave of feminism focus upon? (1800-1920)
Equality in voting, divorce, education and work
(Waves) what did the second wave of feminism focus upon? (60/70s)
Personal is political
Women's liberation movement
Rise of radical, liberal and Marxist feminists
(Waves) what did the third wave of feminism focus on?
Varying experiences of women in class, ethnicity and sexuality
Rise of black feminism and intersectionality
(Waves) what did the fourth wave of feminism focus on?
Challenging sexism and discrimination
E.g. Everyday sexism project
(Liberal) gender inequality is due to what?
Gender role socialisation
(Liberal) what does Oakley say manipulation and canalisation do?
Dressing feminine or giving girls gender appropriate toys e.g. Kitchens
Teaches children the expected norms and values for their sex
(Liberal) what reinforces the gender roles children are taught?
Media and advertising
(Liberal) who did sharp study?
Girls in London in the 1970s and 1990s
(Liberal) what did sharp find about girls priorities?
Changed from marriage and children in the 70s to careers and education in the 90s
(Liberal) what solutions do liberal feminists propose?
Change in socialisation
Change in legal policies to enforce equality
(Liberal) liberal feminists have caused what changes in legislation?
Equal pay act
Sex discrimination act
Maternity paternity leave
(Liberal) criticism - what does Oakley assume?
Children are passive recipients of socialisation
(Liberal) criticism - have all of the legislations worked?
No still a pay gap
(Liberal)criticism - what would postmodernists say about gender?
Fluid it can change
(Marxist f) what does capitalism need?
(Marxist f) what are some of the ways capitalism benefits from housewives?
Reproducing next gen of workers
Keep workers going
Reserve army of labour
Reduce bargaining power
(Marxist f) what role do housewives play in socialisation?
Socialise next generation of workers into ruling class ideology to be submissive and obedient
(Marxist f) how do housewives keep workers physically going?
Feeding and clothing them
(Marxist f) how do housewives reduce men's bargaining power?
Less likely to strike as they have a family to provide for and support
(Marxist f) what does it mean that housewives are a reserve army of labour?
Hired and fired as and when needed
(Marxist f)what does it mean that housewives act as a safety valve?
Outlet for workers frustrations rather than men directing their anger at capitalism
(Marxist f) costa and James investigated whether housewife was what?
A role or a job
(Marxist f) costa and James accounted the cost of what?
Women's services - cleaner, childcare, therapist
(Marxist f) costa and James say housewives should be what?
(Marxist f) what solutions do Marxist feminists offer?
Pay housewives - mean a massive redistribution of wealth
(Marxist f) criticism - what do they overemphasise?
(Marxist f) criticism - views on traditional housewife role can be seen as what?
(Marxist f) criticism - over reliance on what solution?
(Marxist f) criticism - radical feminists say focus on class detracts from what?
Real issue of patriarchy