2.1 RM - Observations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.1 RM - Observations Deck (26)
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1

What is a participant observation?

Researcher becomes immersed in the everyday life of a group

2

What is covert observation?

Where the participants are unaware they're being watched

3

What is overt observation?

Where the participants are unaware we they are being studied

4

What are the strengths of overt participant observation?

You can ask questions and record data easily

5

What are strengths of covert observation?

Can access hard to reach groups

6

What are the weaknesses of overt participant observation?

The group may edit what you see

7

What are weaknesses of covert participant observation?

Difficult getting in and out
Personal risk
Reliant on memory - can't record data easily
Researchers characteristics determine who they can observe

8

What is a weakness of both covert and overt participant observation?

Qualitative data is hard to analyse

9

What is an ethical strength of overt participant observation?

Full informed consent
Right to withdraw
No deception
Confidential

10

What are ethical issues of covert participant observation?

No consent
No right to withdraw
Deception
Illegal activities
Guilty knowledge

11

Are participant observations reliable or representative?

No

12

What are reliable weaknesses of participant observations?

Impossible to repeat - unstandardised
Relies on characteristics of researcher
Qualitative data is not comparable

13

What are representative weaknesses of participant observations?

One group
Samples are small and non random

14

What are valid strengths of participant observations?

• see firsthand behaviour and interactions
• interpretivists can develop verstehen
• covert no Hawthorne effect or social desirability
• insight into closed groups

15

What are valid weaknesses of participant observations?

•overt- Hawthorne effect knowing they're being watched
• covert - going native loosing objectivity
• positivists - subjective and biased views of researcher

16

What is a non participant observation?

Where the researcher observes a group from the outside - without becoming immersed in the life of the group

17

What are practical strengths of non participant observation?

• Easier to use record and analyse data than PO
• less issues getting in and out
• quantitative results - positivists, patterns

18

What are practical weaknesses of NPO?

• limited data that lacks depth
• interpretivists can't develop verstehen
• inflexible
• hard to ask questions

19

What are ethical strengths of NPO?

Few issues

20

What are ethical weaknesses of covert NPO?

Deception
No consent

21

What are reliable strength of NPO?

• if structured it is repeatable using observation schedule

22

What are reliable weaknesses of NPO?

Less structured

23

What are representative strengths of NPO?

Can observe more groups than PO, more representative

24

What are representative weaknesses of NPO?

Less representative than official stats and surveys

Small scale

25

What are valid strengths of NPO?

Less chance of bias or going native
Objective and detached positivists like

26

What are valid weaknesses of NPO?

• no firsthand understanding
• hard to develop verstehen
• Hawthorne effect if overt
• structured schedule means researcher is imposing view

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