Flashcards in 2.1 RM - Observations Deck (26)
What is a participant observation?
Researcher becomes immersed in the everyday life of a group
What is covert observation?
Where the participants are unaware they're being watched
What is overt observation?
Where the participants are unaware we they are being studied
What are the strengths of overt participant observation?
You can ask questions and record data easily
What are strengths of covert observation?
Can access hard to reach groups
What are the weaknesses of overt participant observation?
The group may edit what you see
What are weaknesses of covert participant observation?
Difficult getting in and out
Reliant on memory - can't record data easily
Researchers characteristics determine who they can observe
What is a weakness of both covert and overt participant observation?
Qualitative data is hard to analyse
What is an ethical strength of overt participant observation?
Full informed consent
Right to withdraw
What are ethical issues of covert participant observation?
No right to withdraw
Are participant observations reliable or representative?
What are reliable weaknesses of participant observations?
Impossible to repeat - unstandardised
Relies on characteristics of researcher
Qualitative data is not comparable
What are representative weaknesses of participant observations?
Samples are small and non random
What are valid strengths of participant observations?
• see firsthand behaviour and interactions
• interpretivists can develop verstehen
• covert no Hawthorne effect or social desirability
• insight into closed groups
What are valid weaknesses of participant observations?
•overt- Hawthorne effect knowing they're being watched
• covert - going native loosing objectivity
• positivists - subjective and biased views of researcher
What is a non participant observation?
Where the researcher observes a group from the outside - without becoming immersed in the life of the group
What are practical strengths of non participant observation?
• Easier to use record and analyse data than PO
• less issues getting in and out
• quantitative results - positivists, patterns
What are practical weaknesses of NPO?
• limited data that lacks depth
• interpretivists can't develop verstehen
• hard to ask questions
What are ethical strengths of NPO?
What are ethical weaknesses of covert NPO?
What are reliable strength of NPO?
• if structured it is repeatable using observation schedule
What are reliable weaknesses of NPO?
What are representative strengths of NPO?
Can observe more groups than PO, more representative
What are representative weaknesses of NPO?
Less representative than official stats and surveys
What are valid strengths of NPO?
Less chance of bias or going native
Objective and detached positivists like