Flashcards in 1.1 Types Of Culture Deck (56)
Give examples of subcultures:
- religious groups
- youth subcultures
- subcultures based on hobbies
- subcultures based on sexuality
- social groups
- subcultures based on ethnicity
What are deviant youth subcultures?
Subcultures made up of young people who's norms and values run counter to those of wider society
Give examples of some youth subcultures:
What is the CCCS and what did they study?
- the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (marxist)
- in the 1970s and 80s they began studying youth subcultures which emerged from the 1950s onwards
What is a subculture?
A smaller group within a larger group (society) that share some mainstream norms and values, but has its own set of unique norms and values differing from the wider group
What did the CCCSs research show?
- youth subcultures often are a way of symbolically resisting dominant culture
- they do this by creating there own style, dress and music so they maintain control over distinct values
Give examples of what youth subcultures value:
- most youth subcultures value being unique, resistance, acceptance and community
- hippies value peace
- skinheads value aggression
How are youth subcultures viewed by wider society?
- looked down upon and are seen in a negative light
- many in society feel intimidated by them
What do youth subcultures provide for young people?
-A sense of identity and belonging
What do postmodernists say about youth subcultures?
They are becoming less distinct as people increasingly choose their identities. As a result styles are becoming more mixed (hybrid identities)
What is high culture?
" the culture of the rich "
- the type of culture enjoyed by those of the upper class and those with higher status
Give examples of high culture activities:
- classical music
- certain types of art
- plays/theatre (Shakespeare)
- certain novels and literature (Dickens)
What are high culture activities seen as?
More sophisticated, difficult and worthwhile
What did Pierre Bourdieu (Marxist) say about high culture?
- high culture is dominant as the upper classes have the power to give it more status
- it provides people with cultural capital
What is cultural capital?
Having the appropriate norms and values and enjoying a particular form of high culture leads to financial rewards and social mobility
What is social mobility?
The chance to improve your social position
Why are children who are raised in a high culture environment at advantage in the education system?
Because the knowledge gained through enjoying high culture is highly valued in the education system
What does enjoying high culture with certain groups of people mean for individuals?
- rewards (financial, jobs)
- chance to build up social contacts and networks
What is popular culture also known as?
What is popular culture?
Any form of culture that is not high culture, it is enjoyed by the majority of society
Give examples of popular culture:
- mainstream music
How is popular culture produced?
It is commercially produced
Why has popular culture grown?
Due to the growth of the mass media, which made particular forms of music and items widespread
What is popular culture often viewed as?
- low status
- less sophisticated
How do Marxists view popular culture?
- powerful high culture individuals attempts to exploit and control lower status groups
- a way of dumbing us down and making us more passive
How do others view popular culture?
A way to allow lower status groups to express their own cultural views and even rebel
What did Strinati (postmodernist) say about the distinction between high and popular culture?
- the distinction is blurring
Why are high and popular culture blurring?
- the media gives everyone access to activities previously seen as high culture
- e.g Shakespeare plays in to movies
What is consumer culture?
- a culture centred on buying and consuming goods
- encouraging people to buy a range of never ending products