Flashcards in 3.2 Subculturalists On Crime & Deviance Deck (43)
Subculturalist theories explain crime and deviance in terms of what?
Differing norms and values
(Cohen) Cohen talks about the delinquent what?
(Cohen) delinquency is not an individual response rather it is what?
(Cohen) what did Merton fail to explain?
Non utilitarian crime
(Cohen) agrees with Merton that education failure is caused by what?
(Cohen) due to cultural deprivation working class youths suffer what?
(Cohen) working class youths reject mainstream goals and replace them with what?
Their own a delinquent subculture
(Cohen) delinquent subcultures reverse what?
Norms and values of mainstream culture in defiance
(Cohen) delinquent subcultures offer what for its members?
Positive rewards e.g. Attention and recognition
(Cohen) criticism - Box questions whether working class youths originally do what?
Accept mainstream goals and feel ashamed by failure
(Cohen) criticisms - Box - working class youths may actually just resent what?
Being looked down upon
(Cohen) criticism Bordua -cohen uses the idea of cultural deprivation to explain education failure which is what?
Passed on through socialisation
(Cohen) criticism - Bordua - but cohen argues delinquent subcultures are what?
Developed anew in each generation
(Cloward and Ohlin) what can explain different types of deviance?
Differential access to illegitimate opportunity structure
(Cloward and Ohlin) when do criminal subcultures develop?
With access to organised adult crime
You need skills, location and connections to get in
(Cloward and Ohlin) when do conflict subcultures develop?
When access to criminal is blocked
Frustration is expressed through gang violence
(Cloward and Ohlin) when do retreatist subcultures develop?
Access to criminal and conflict is blocked
Centres on drug use and petty crime
(Cloward and Ohlin) criticism - Taylor Walton and young say the theory assumes everyone starts with what?
The same goal
(Cloward and Ohlin) criticism - some groups decide to do what?
Reject the success goal
They aren't just reacting to their failure
(Cloward and Ohlin) strength - they explain what that Merton doesn't?
Delinquencys link to opportunity structure
(Miller) explains crime through what?
Working class culture
(Miller) what does the working class culture consist of?
5 focal concerns
(Miller) what are the 5 focal concerns?
(Miller) what is toughness and what crimes does it link to?
Concern for strength and masculinity
Connected to assault
(Miller) what is smartness and what crimes is it connected to?
Concern for outwitting others
Linked to conmen
(Miller) what is excitement and what is it linked to?
(Miller) what is trouble?
Seeing trouble and fighting as normal and acceptable
(Miller) what is autonomy and what does it link to?
You can't tell me what to do
Links to problems with the police
(Miller) what two factors exaggerate focal concerns?
A peer group demanding close conformity
A concern for status