Flashcards in 2.1 RM - Documents & Content Analysis Deck (26)
What can documents be?
What are practical strengths of documents?
• quick and cheap
• published ones are easily accessible
• no personal risk
What are practical weaknesses of documents?
• only access published ones
• qualitative data is hard to analyse
What are ethical strengths of documents?
What are reliable strengths of documents?
Regularly published documents can be compared reliably and over time e.g ofsted reports
What are reliable weaknesses of documents?
Usually unstandardised can't be repeated in same way
What are representative strengths of documents?
Large and representative sample of regularly published documents such as newspapers
What are representative weaknesses of documents?
• small samples of personal documents
• John Scott - can't be sure that historical documents reflect typical ideas of the time
What are validity strengths of documents?
• insight into author - personal documents
• insight you wouldn't be able to get otherwise - historical
Explain John Scott's valid weaknesses of documents, authenticity:
Historical documents aren't always authentic they can be forgeries or errors from year of copying
Explain John Scott's valid weaknesses of documents, credibility:
The author may be deliberately misleading
Explain John Scott's valid weaknesses of documents, meaning:
Words can change meaning over time and different researchers will interpret differently
What do media documents include?
What does formal content analysis attempt to do?
Quantify and classify content in an objective manner - count how many times something occurs using a category
Give an example of formal content analysis:
E.g counting gender stereotyping instances in a tv show
What is good about formal content analysis?
Effective measure of straightforward aspects
What is bad about formal content analysis?
Says little about the meaning of documents to their audience or producer
What does thematic analysis do?
Looks for bias in the way things are reported - the motives and ideology underlying documents
Give an example of motives underlying documents:
News reflecting interests of powerful groups
What did Glasgow uni media group find using thematic analysis:
The news reflects pro-management anti Union bias in industrial disputes
What are some criticisms of thematic analysis?
• is the document being misinterpreted
• does the bias matter to its audience
What does textual analysis do?
Examines text closely to see how it encourages particular reading
Give an example of how headlines push for certain reading:
Innocent victim vs. Evil perpetrator
What are criticisms of textual analysis?
not what producer intended
What are strengths of content analysis?
•researcher can compare different sources longitudinally
•quantitative - reliable repeated using same content analysis schedule