Flashcards in 3.2 Ethnicity & Offending Deck (30)
(policing) who are more likely to be stopped and searched?
ethnic minority groups
(policing) how many times more likely are black people to be stopped and searched?
(policing) how many times more likely are Asian people to be stopped and searched?
(policing) official statistics from 2006/7 showed Asians to be over how many times more likely to be stopped and searched?
(policing) Phillips and Browning highlight police officers hold what? leading to what?
negative stereotypes about ethnic minorities as criminals leading to deliberate targeting and stop and search
(policing) in low discretion stops what do police act upon?
relevant info such as descriptions - not racist stereotypes
(policing) in high discretion stops what do police act upon?
no specific intelligence
here stereotypes can be used and discrimination can occur
(policing) which groups are most likely to be stopped?
ethnic minorities, young, unemployed, manual workers and urban dwellers
(arrest & caution) Arrest rate for blacks is how many times the rate for whites?
(arrest & caution) once arrested black people are less likely to receive a caution, why?
mistrust of police
not admitting the offence (likely to be charged instead)
(prosecution) the crown prosecution service is the main body deciding what?
whether a case brought by police should be prosecuted in court
(arrest & caution) what is the CPS more likely to do regarding ethnic minorities?
drop cases against ethnic minorities
(arrest & caution) what do Bowling & Phillips say about why the CPS are likely to drop cases against ethnic minorities?
lack of police evidence - weaker and based on stereotypes
(trials) members of ethnic minority groups are more likely to opt for what and why?
crown court jury trial over a magistrates because they think it is more impartial
(trials) but what do crown courts do? what does this tell us?
hand out tougher sentences
may explain why ethnic minorities serve longer sentences
(convictions) defendants from which ethnic backgrounds are less likely to be found guilty?
black and asian
(convictions) in 2006/7 what percentages of whites, blacks and Asian defendants were found guilty?
60% of whites
52% of blacks
44% of asians
(convictions) higher percentage of whites being found guilty suggests what?
discrimination in police getting weaker
less serious cases against ethnic minorities are thrown out of court
(sentencing) 2006/7 what percentages of custodial sentences were given to blacks, whites and Asians?
blacks - 68%
white - 55%
Asian - 59%
(sentencing) which group is most likely to be given custodial sentences?
(sentencing) which groups are more likely to receive community sentences?
whites and asians
Hood studied 5 crown courts and found black men were 5% more likely to receive what? and how much longer were their sentences?
3 months longer than white men
(pre-sentence reports) what are these?
pre written reports by probation officers to help magistrates decide on sentencing
(pre-sentence reports) Hudson & Bramhall found PSRs on Asian offenders where what?
suggestive that the offenders were not remorseful
(pre-sentence reports) how did Hudson and Bramhall explain their findings on PSRs of Asian offenders?
the "demonising" of Muslims since 9/11
(prison) which minorities are most likely to be serving longer sentences?
blacks and Asians ( up to 4 yrs longer than whites)
(prison) what proportion of the male prison population did ethnic minority groups make up in 2007?
over a quarter
(prison) which group has the highest proportion of its members in prison in relation to the size of the groups population?
make up 13% of the prison population
make up 2.6% of the whole uk population
similar results are found in the US, how many of those in jail are black?
2 out of 5 offenders