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Flashcards in 1.1 Class identities Deck (44)
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1

what do most sociologists find it convenient to use as a measure of social class?

occupation

2

through socialisation we learn to identify with whom?

members of our own social class

3

through socialisation we also become class conscious, what does this mean?

we become aware of the differences separating us from other social classes

4

which class share a strong sense of identity?

the upper class

5

members of the upper class share culture and contacts making it hard for non members to do what?

be accepted

6

it is difficult for other people to move into the upper class, what is the term for this?

social closure

7

the upper class is characterised by a high level of social cohesion, what are the 4 ways this is achieved?

education
marriages
activities
shared values

8

where are upper class children educated (social cohesion)?

upper class children educated in top public schools and universities e.g. eton, oxford.

9

at these top schools what are upper class children socialised into? (social cohesion)

high levels of self confidence and feelings of superiority

10

at top schools what do upper class children build up? give an example:

valuable social contacts which can help them get jobs
e.g. the old boy network

11

as upper class children socialise, go to school with and engage in the same leisure activities, what do they eventually do?

inter marry and develop further connections between upper class families

12

during socialisation upper class children are introduced to exclusive what?

social events

13

give examples of some exclusive social events providing an upper class lifestyle:

hunting
shooting
tennis
sailing
horse racing

14

what are some of the shared values the upper class are socialised into?

tradition
hierarchy
conservatism

15

the middle class are often seen as the "...." workers?

non manual

16

what sort of backgrounds do the middle class come from?

a diverse range of backgrounds
some from working class background

17

why has there been a large growth in middle class jobs?

nhs, education and civil service sectors
office work and sales

18

unlike the upper class what are the middle class open to?

outsiders

19

the range of "middle class" jobs means there are a lot of differences in what?

pay

20

due to the diversity of the middle class what is it less likely they will develop?

shared identity

21

what did Roberts argue the middle class are socialised into?

some shared values

22

what are some of the shared values of the middle class that Roberts talked about?

education
meritocracy
home ownership
leisure pursuits

23

(Roberts) what do the middle class use to encourage educational achievement among children?

cultural capital

24

what is cultural capital?

what you know
the knowledge you have

25

(Roberts) the middle class believe in meritocracy, what does this mean?

high status can be achieved through effort and ability

26

(Roberts) middle class are more likely than other social groups to defer gratification, what does this mean?

put off rewards now in pursuit of education and training

27

the working class are often referred to as "....." workers?

manual

28

the working class gain a sense of community through what?

manual industrial work in heavy dangerous industries

29

traditional manual workers identified strongly with each other, what was this partly due to?

the dangerous conditions
working together to improve trade unions, wages and conditions

30

traditional manual workers had a strong what?

political identity
class identity

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