Flashcards in 1.1 Culture Deck (31)
What does culture include?
What does culture connect?
An individual to the rest of society
What does culture teach a person?
How to fit in and relate to other people
How do we gain culture?
We learn it
What are values?
Something seen as good and worth striving for
What do values provide the basis for?
What are universal values? Give an example:
Values shared by most societies, for example most societies value human life
What are culturally relative values?
Values that differ from society to society
Give an example of culturally relative values:
- in the UK individual achievement, wealth and democracy are valued, however in other societies such as communist societies, these things wouldn't be valued rather equality and such things would be
What are norms?
Rules for expected behaviour in particular situations
What are norms based on?
Are norms relative?
What does relative mean?
Varies overtime and between cultures
Give an example of how norms have changed over time:
- in previous decades smoking was seen as good or cool and smoking in public places was acceptable
- now to smoke is seen as less acceptable especially in public places
Give an example of a study showing norms varying between societies:
Margaret meads study on male and female behaviour expectations
In Margaret Mead's study what did the Arapesh tribe show?
Both sexes were gentle and cooperative (feminine)
In Margaret Meads study what did the Mundugumor tribe show?
Both sexes were violent and aggressive (masculine)
In Margaret Meads study what did the Tchambuli tribe show?
- complete gender reversal in comparison to the western world
- women were dominant and aggressive with little involvement in raising children
- men were timid and emotionally dependant and spent much time decorating themselves
What are breaking the norms seen as?
What is intracultural diversity?
Variations within cultures, for example subcultures
What is intercultural diversity?
Variations between cultures
Give examples of intercultural diversity:
•highly value religion
•norms include living with siblings and raising children together
•practice walking marriages
•value land and nature due to connections with their ancestors
•nuclear families are the norm
•all adults are responsible for the children
What is status?
Peoples standing in the eyes of others
What is status determined by?
The prestige or respect attached to an individual's position e.g doctor
What does the term ascribed status mean?
A status that is fixed at birth
What does the term achieved status mean?
A status gained through effort
What are roles?
Patterns of behaviour expected of a position in society
What can roles be?
Ascribed or achieved
Give an example of an ascribed role: