A common test of working memory is the ____ ____ ____, which requires responding to something you saw or heard a short while ago.
delayed response task
Damage to the ____ ____ impairs performance on the delayed response task, and the deficit can be amazingly precise, depending on the exact location of the damage.
Many older people have ____ of working memory, probably because of changes in the prefrontal cortex.
Older humans with declining memory show declining activity in the prefrontal cortex, but those with intact memory show ____ activity than young adults.
Presumably, the increased activity means that the prefrontal cortex is working ____ in these older adults to compensate for impairments elsewhere in the brain.
____ is memory loss.
Even in severe cases of amnesia, no one loses all kinds of ____ equally.
Studies of amnesia help clarify the distinctions among different kinds of memory and enable us to explore the ____ of memory.
In 1953, ____ ____, known in most research reports as HM, was suffering about 10 minor ecliptic seizures per day and a major seizure about once a week, despite trying every available antiepileptic drug.
A surgeon who had experimented with various forms of lobotomy for mental illness had come to believe that removing the ____ ____ ____ would relieve epilepsy.
medial temporal lobe
The neurosurgeon removed the ____ and some nearby structures of the medial temporal cortex from both of HM's hemispheres.
We now know the various parts of the hippocampus are active during both the formation of ____ and later recall.
Although the operation reduced HM's epilepsy to no more than two major seizures per year, he suffered a severe ____ ____.
After the surgery, HM's intellect and language abilities remained intact, and is personality remained the same except for ____ ____.
However, HM suffered a massive ____ ____ (an inability to form memories for events that happened after brain damage). He also suffered a ____ ____ (loss of memory for events that occurred before the brain damage).
anterograde amnesia : retrograde amnesia
HM is representative of many people have suffered amnesia after ____ to the hippocampus and surrounding structures of the medial temporal lobe.
Despite HM's huge deficits informing ____ memories, his short-term or working memory remained intact.
Although HM showed normal working memory, as soon as he was ____, the memory was gone.
HM formed a few weak ____ (factual) memories for new information he encountered repeatedly.
HM had severe impairment of ____ ____, memories of single personal events. He could not describe any experience he had after surgery. His retrograde amnesia was also greatest for episodic memories.
Studies using fMRI show that describing past events or imagining future events activate mostly the same areas, including the ____. People with amnesia are just as impaired at imagining the future as they are at describing the past.
Nearly all patients with amnesia show ____ ____ than explicit memory.
____ ____ is deliberate recall of information that one recognises as a memory, also known as declarative memory. If you have an explicit memory of something, you can state it in words.
____ ____ is an influence of experience on behaviour, even if you do not recognise that influence.
____ ____, the development of motor skills and habits, is a special kind of implicit memory.