2014 Major Nutrients - Proteins Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2014 Major Nutrients - Proteins Deck (45):
1

Proteins are made up of building blocks called what?

amino acids

2

Amino acids commonly contain what four elements?

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

3

Some amino acids may also contain what element?

sulfur

4

How many amino acids are found in nature?

22

5

What is the chemical symbol for carbon? Hydrogen? Oxygen? Nitrogen? Sulfur?

carbon-C, hydrogen-H, oxygen-O, nitrogen-N, sulfur-S

6

Give three examples of tissues that have proteins as an important structural component.

muscle, skin, hair, bone, blood

7

Name two hormones that are also proteins.

insulin, bovine somatotropin

8

Amino acids bond together to form what?

proteins

9

Name three organs that secrete enzymes.

abomasum, small intestine, pancreas

10

Enzymes secreted by the abomasum, small intestine and pancreas do what to amino acids?

break the bonds of amino acids and separate them, which allows them to be absorbed by the body

11

Proteins must be broken down into what before they can be absorbed by the body?

amino acids

12

Name the two groups into which amino acids can be divided.

essential and non-essential

13

What is the difference between essential and non-essential amino acids?

essential amino acids are NOT produced by the body and must be provided in the diet, and non-essential which are produced by the body and are not needed in the diet.

14

What is the name used to remember the ten essential amino acids?

PHIL MT VAT

15

How many of the essential amino acids can you name?

phenaylaline, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, tryptophan, valine, arginine, threonine

16

Protein digested by the rumen microbes is called what?

ruminally degraded proteins RDP or degradable intake protein DIP

17

Microbes digest the ruminally degradable protein RDP and break it down into what?

first the RDP is broken down into amino acids and then into ammonia

18

Microbes “eat” the amino acids and ammonia and form new proteins called what?

microbial protein

19

How long is the life span of the rumen microbes?

several hours

20

When these rumen microbes die, they travel thru the digestive tract and these are digested into what? Where does this digestion take place?

The rumen microbes are digested into amino acids. This digestion takes place in the abomasum and small intestine.

21

What provides the majority of the protein digested and absorbed by the animal?

microbial protein

22

The portion of the protein that escapes rumen fermentation is called what?

ruminally undegraded protein (RUP) also known as undegradable intake protein (UIP) or bypass protein.

23

The portion of protein that passes thru the rumen unchanged may be digested where?

in the abomasum and the small intestine

24

What happens to the RUP (ruminally undegraded protein) that is indigestible?

it passes from the body in the feces

25

Name some sources of ruminally degraded protein.

urea, soybean meal, alfalfa hay, silage

26

Name some sources of ruminally undegraded protein.

distillers grains, brewers grains, roasted soybeans, blood meal, fish meal

27

Name two aspects of the amino acids which reach the small intestine, that are important in determining the animal’s productivity?

the quantity and balance of the amino acids determine prodcutivity

28

Why is the correct balance and quantity of amino acids necessary for productivity?

the animal uses the amino acids to create the proteins needed for growth, milk production, maintenance and pregnancy

29

What do you call the amino acid that is in short supply and prevents more proteins from being formed?

first limiting amino acid

30

Name the two most common limiting amino acids.

lysine and methionine

31

Why are lysine and methionine in limited supply?

because they are found in low amounts in the common dairy feeds, corn, silage, soybean meal

32

Name two good sources for lysine.

fish meal and blood meal

33

Name three good sources for methionine.

corn gluten meal, fish meal, sunflower meal

34

Designing rations using the proper protein supplements may increase what and decrease what?

can increase milk yield and decrease the release of excess nitrogen in the urine

35

Any leftover amino acids that cannot be used will be removed from the body in what?

urine

36

If an animal is not getting the proper proteins in the diet, it may lead to an excess of what element in the urine? Why is this bad?

nitrogen, which contaminates ground and surface water

37

The quantity and balance of amino acids in the small intestine are important to determining the animal’s what?

productivity level

38

The dairy animal puts together amino acids to form proteins needed for what four general functions?

growth, pregnancy, milk production, maintenance

39

A protein is made up of a specific combination of what?

amino acids

40

Amino acids are needed in varying amounts to build proteins. If one amino acid is in short or limited supply, that amino acid is called what?

first limiting amino acid

41

In dairy rations, what are the two most common limiting amino acids?

lysine, methionine

42

Why are the amino acids lysine and methionine the two most common limiting amino acids?

Because the common dairy rations of corn, silage and soybean meal are low in these amino acids (when compared to how much is needed to make milk)

43

Give two examples of feed supplements which are a good source of lysine.

fish meal, blood meal

44

Give two examples of feed supplements which are a good source of methionine.

corn gluten meal, fish meal, sunflower meal

45

Using feed supplements to provide additional lysine and methionine to the dairy animal, may decrease the amount of what element that would otherwise be excreted in the urine, contaminating ground and surface water?

nitrogen

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