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Flashcards in 2015 Questions Submitted Deck (139):
1

Name the structure that holds the uterus and ovaries in their proper position.

Broad ligament

2

The process of releasing an ovum from the follicle on the ovary is known by what term?

ovulation

3

What is the name of the temporary gland that forms on the ovary after the ovum is released?

Corpus luteum, or yellow body

4

GnRH causes the release of which two reproductive hormones?

LH and FSH

5

Name the technical term for the act of giving birth.

partuition

6

Which reproductive hormone helps deliver the calf, by causing the tissue in the birth canal to relax?

Relaxin

7

Through which structure does the fetus receives all of its nutrients?

placenta

8

How many phases of the estrous cycle are there?

2 phases

9

The period of heat in dairy cattle is known as what?

estrus

10

What is the most reliable sign of estrus?

Standing to be mounted

11

What is the most common reason a cow does not come back into heat?

Pregnancy

12

The thin cylinder used to preserve frozen semen is known by what term?

A French straw

13

What element is used to freeze and store semen?

nitrogen (liquid form)

14

Which breed of dairy cattle has the longest gestation period?

Brown Swiss

15

Name the hormone released by a pregnant cow, which is triggered by her calf’s response to stress, that initiates parturition.

cortisol

16

Name the two male reproductive hormones which stimulate sperm production.

FSH and LH

17

What is the main function of a bull’s testes?

to produce sperm and to produce the male sex hormones

18

Sterility describes an animal that cannot do what?

cannot reproduce

19

After the ovum is fertilized, where does the fetus grow and develop?

uterus

20

What is the number one reason for culling in U.S. dairy herds?

reproductive failure

21

The period of time from one calving until the next calving, is known by what term?

calving interval

22

How long is the most common Voluntary Waiting Period?

60 days

23

What do the letters SCR stand for in regard to dairy cattle reproduction?

sire conception rate

24

At what time of day should vaccinations be given?

In the morning

25

How long before a show, should your animal’s hooves be trimmed?

at least one month before a show

26

Where should the nose piece of a nylon halter be positioned on a dairy animal?

halfway between the nostrils and the eyes

27

In the male reproductive system, where are mature sperm stored?

epididymus

28

What type of knot should be used to secure your animal?

quick release slip knot

29

Name 1 of the 3 common bovine ailments that will make an animal ineligible for a show.

warts, pinkeye, ringworm

30

Give 5 signs a cow is near calving.

udder full, vulva enlarged, mucus discharge, relaxation of ligaments at tail head, restlessness

31

Name 4 aspects of good housing for heifers.

clean, dry, well-ventilated, protected from drafts, shade from sun, protection from weather

32

Why is it important to feed a calf appropriate amounts of grain and silage?

To ensure maximum growth potential of the calf, without excessive weight gain

33

Why is dehorning of calves an encouraged management practice in the dairy industry?

for the safety of the animal, other animals and people

34

In the show ring, what actions would you take to get your dairy animal to move backwards?

apply pressure to the point of shoulder with the fingertips of your right hand and apply backward pressure to the halter

35

Name the site where semen is deposited during natural service and during AI.

Natural - vagina
AI - in uterus

36

What are the two main functions of the ovaries?

Production of eggs AND
Secretes hormones essential for reproduction

37

What percentage of the cow’s ova were present at birth?

100%

38

After release from the follicle, how many hours will the ovum be fertile?

6-12 hours

39

Which reproductive hormone is produced in the hypothalamus of both cows and bulls?

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)

40

Which female reproductive hormone is produced by the corpus luteum?

progesterone

41

What function does prostaglandin have in the female reproductive cycle?

Destroys the corpus luteum

42

What is the purpose of the female reproductive hormone prolactin?

Stimulate the udder to grow and start producing milk.

43

Approximately how many follicular waves occur during an estrous cycle in cattle?

2-3 follicular waves

44

Identify the condition when the physical signs of heat are difficult to detect.

Silent heat

45

Where are E. Coli and Klebsiella sp. bacteria most commonly found on a dairy farm?

in organic matter, including bedding and manure

46

Which bedding material is associated with an increase risk in mastitis caused by the bacteria Klebsiella sp.?

sawdust

47

How is the teat end most commonly exposed to the E. Coli bacteria?

dirty bedding

48

Since both E. Coli and Klebsiella sp. bacteria will infect mammary glands through environmental contact, what should be done to help prevent exposure to them?

keep stalls clean

49

The use of which inorganic bedding material will help reduce contamination by bacteria?

sand, recycled sand must be washed and properly dried

50

Name 1 of the 2 times when new cases of mastitis are most likely to occur?

early lactation, after drying off

51

Which vaccine has shown to be effective at reducing the number of S. Aureus infections?

Lysigin vaccine

52

Where do mycoplasma infections come from?

from purchased animals with unknown health status

53

Name one way in which mycoplasma infections are spread.

improper sanitation of milking equipment, airborne transmission

54

Name one of the best ways to prevent further infections of mycoplasma mastitis?

maintain a closed herd, culture replacement heifer and cows before contact with other animals

55

Name one of the 3 places where the Staphylococcua aureus bacteria persist in dairy cattle?

mammary glands, teat canals, teat lesions

56

The follicle stimulating hormone stimulates the growth of what?

Ovarian follicles

57

Which reproductive hormone produced by the ovarian follicles causes estrus and peaks at the onset of standing heat?

estrogen

58

What function does progesterone have in cows?

Necessary to maintain pregnancy by inhibiting release of GnRH

59

Which reproductive hormone helps deliver the calf by stimulating muscular contractions of the uterus?

Oxytocin

60

The condition of cryptorchidism may affect what?

fertility

61

Approximately how many follicular waves occur during an estrous cycle in cattle?

2-3 follicular waves

62

What percentage of pregnant cows exhibit signs of estrus?

3-5%

63

Identify the condition when the physical signs of heat are difficult to detect.

Silent heat

64

What term is used to describe the failure to have an estrous cycle?

Anestrus

65

Name the four stages of the estrous cycle.

Estrus, Metestrus, Diestrus,
Proestrus

66

Name and describe the two phases of the estrous cycle.

Follicular - active follicles are present
Luteal - corpus luteum is dominant ovarian structure

67

Name three factors that affect a dairy herd’s conception rate.

heat detection accuracy, cow fertility, bull fertility, technician competency

68

Name five reasons that a herd doesn’t become pregnant when bred by artificial insemination.

failure to ovulate, fertilization failure, hormone imbalance, poor quality semen, failure to inseminate, improper insemination technique, heat detection errors

69

Name 5 factors that can affect the length of gestation.

age of the cow, breed of the cow, sex of the calf, number of calves carried, season of the year

70

Question

Answer

71

Name the structure that holds the uterus and ovaries in their proper position.

Broad ligament

72

The process of releasing an ovum from the follicle on the ovary is known by what term?

ovulation

73

What is the name of the temporary gland that forms on the ovary after the ovum is released?

Corpus luteum, or yellow body

74

GnRH causes the release of which two reproductive hormones?

LH and FSH

75

Name the technical term for the act of giving birth.

partuition

76

Which reproductive hormone helps deliver the calf, by causing the tissue in the birth canal to relax?

Relaxin

77

Through which structure does the fetus receives all of its nutrients?

placenta

78

How many phases of the estrous cycle are there?

2 phases

79

The period of heat in dairy cattle is known as what?

estrus

80

What is the most reliable sign of estrus?

Standing to be mounted

81

What is the most common reason a cow does not come back into heat?

Pregnancy

82

The thin cylinder used to preserve frozen semen is known by what term?

A French straw

83

What element is used to freeze and store semen?

nitrogen (liquid form)

84

Which breed of dairy cattle has the longest gestation period?

Brown Swiss

85

Name the hormone released by a pregnant cow, which is triggered by her calf’s response to stress, that initiates parturition.

cortisol

86

Name the two male reproductive hormones which stimulate sperm production.

FSH and LH

87

What is the main function of a bull’s testes?

to produce sperm and to produce the male sex hormones

88

Sterility describes an animal that cannot do what?

cannot reproduce

89

After the ovum is fertilized, where does the fetus grow and develop?

uterus

90

What is the number one reason for culling in U.S. dairy herds?

reproductive failure

91

The period of time from one calving until the next calving, is known by what term?

calving interval

92

How long is the most common Voluntary Waiting Period?

60 days

93

What do the letters SCR stand for in regard to dairy cattle reproduction?

sire conception rate

94

At what time of day should vaccinations be given?

In the morning

95

How long before a show, should your animal’s hooves be trimmed?

at least one month before a show

96

Where should the nose piece of a nylon halter be positioned on a dairy animal?

halfway between the nostrils and the eyes

97

In the male reproductive system, where are mature sperm stored?

epididymus

98

What type of knot should be used to secure your animal?

quick release slip knot

99

Name 1 of the 3 common bovine ailments that will make an animal ineligible for a show.

warts, pinkeye, ringworm

100

Give 5 signs a cow is near calving.

udder full, vulva enlarged, mucus discharge, relaxation of ligaments at tail head, restlessness

101

Name 4 aspects of good housing for heifers.

clean, dry, well-ventilated, protected from drafts, shade from sun, protection from weather

102

Why is it important to feed a calf appropriate amounts of grain and silage?

To ensure maximum growth potential of the calf, without excessive weight gain

103

Why is dehorning of calves an encouraged management practice in the dairy industry?

for the safety of the animal, other animals and people

104

In the show ring, what actions would you take to get your dairy animal to move backwards?

apply pressure to the point of shoulder with the fingertips of your right hand and apply backward pressure to the halter

105

Name the site where semen is deposited during natural service and during AI.

Natural - vagina
AI - in uterus

106

What are the two main functions of the ovaries?

Production of eggs AND
Secretes hormones essential for reproduction

107

What percentage of the cow’s ova were present at birth?

100%

108

After release from the follicle, how many hours will the ovum be fertile?

6-12 hours

109

Which reproductive hormone is produced in the hypothalamus of both cows and bulls?

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)

110

Which female reproductive hormone is produced by the corpus luteum?

progesterone

111

What function does prostaglandin have in the female reproductive cycle?

Destroys the corpus luteum

112

What is the purpose of the female reproductive hormone prolactin?

Stimulate the udder to grow and start producing milk.

113

Approximately how many follicular waves occur during an estrous cycle in cattle?

2-3 follicular waves

114

Identify the condition when the physical signs of heat are difficult to detect.

Silent heat

115

Where are E. Coli and Klebsiella sp. bacteria most commonly found on a dairy farm?

in organic matter, including bedding and manure

116

Which bedding material is associated with an increase risk in mastitis caused by the bacteria Klebsiella sp.?

sawdust

117

How is the teat end most commonly exposed to the E. Coli bacteria?

dirty bedding

118

Since both E. Coli and Klebsiella sp. bacteria will infect mammary glands through environmental contact, what should be done to help prevent exposure to them?

keep stalls clean

119

The use of which inorganic bedding material will help reduce contamination by bacteria?

sand, recycled sand must be washed and properly dried

120

Name 1 of the 2 times when new cases of mastitis are most likely to occur?

early lactation, after drying off

121

Which vaccine has shown to be effective at reducing the number of S. Aureus infections?

Lysigin vaccine

122

Where do mycoplasma infections come from?

from purchased animals with unknown health status

123

Name one way in which mycoplasma infections are spread.

improper sanitation of milking equipment, airborne transmission

124

Name one of the best ways to prevent further infections of mycoplasma mastitis?

maintain a closed herd, culture replacement heifer and cows before contact with other animals

125

Name one of the 3 places where the Staphylococcua aureus bacteria persist in dairy cattle?

mammary glands, teat canals, teat lesions

126

The follicle stimulating hormone stimulates the growth of what?

Ovarian follicles

127

Which reproductive hormone produced by the ovarian follicles causes estrus and peaks at the onset of standing heat?

estrogen

128

What function does progesterone have in cows?

Necessary to maintain pregnancy by inhibiting release of GnRH

129

Which reproductive hormone helps deliver the calf by stimulating muscular contractions of the uterus?

Oxytocin

130

The condition of cryptorchidism may affect what?

fertility

131

Approximately how many follicular waves occur during an estrous cycle in cattle?

2-3 follicular waves

132

What percentage of pregnant cows exhibit signs of estrus?

3-5%

133

Identify the condition when the physical signs of heat are difficult to detect.

Silent heat

134

What term is used to describe the failure to have an estrous cycle?

Anestrus

135

Name the four stages of the estrous cycle.

Estrus, Metestrus, Diestrus,
Proestrus

136

Name and describe the two phases of the estrous cycle.

Follicular - active follicles are present
Luteal - corpus luteum is dominant ovarian structure

137

Name three factors that affect a dairy herd’s conception rate.

heat detection accuracy, cow fertility, bull fertility, technician competency

138

Name five reasons that a herd doesn’t become pregnant when bred by artificial insemination.

failure to ovulate, fertilization failure, hormone imbalance, poor quality semen, failure to inseminate, improper insemination technique, heat detection errors

139

Name 5 factors that can affect the length of gestation.

age of the cow, breed of the cow, sex of the calf, number of calves carried, season of the year

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