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Flashcards in 2014 Review Questions Deck (76):
1

What part of the animal is used as a reference point to determine the height of the udder?

hock

2

What are the main udder supports?

skin, lateral (side) suspensory ligament, median (middle) suspensory ligament

3

What ligament divides the udder in half?

median (middle) suspensory ligament

4

When showing a cow, the rear leg nearest the judge should be positioned how?

slightly forward

5

When showing a heifer, the rear leg nearest the judge should be positioned how?

Slightly back

6

Name the categories and points on the PDCA Cow Scorecard.

frame-15, dairy strength-25, rear feet & legs-20, udder-40

7

Name the categories and points on the PDCA Heifer Scorecard.

body capacity-10, dairy strength-20, feet and legs-30, frame-40

8

Name 4 reasons a cow can be disqualified from the show ring?

tampering to conceal faults, permanent lameness, total blindness, freemartin heifer, blind quarter

9

Name the stages of a female dairy animal's life.

calf to heifer to cow

10

Give 3 methods to identify calves.

eartag, tattoo, photo, sketch, freeze branding

11

On many dairy operations, heifers account for what percent of total farm expenses?

15-20%

12

Name 3 points to consider when choosing a calf.

age, health, breed, pedigree, conformation

13

What are the 3 liquid diet choices for pre-weaned calves?

milk replacer, colostrum, whole milk

14

A calf should be fed how much milk every day?

10-17% of its body weight

15

When a calf nurses, the milk goes directly into what stomach compartment?

omasum

16

Milk that is secreted during the first 2-3 days after calving is called what?

colostrum

17

Colostrum contains what special organisms that provide immunity to the calf?

antibodies

18

Nae the 2 on-farm tools for measuring colostrum.

colostrometer, brix refractometer

19

How long should a newborn calf be fed colostrum?

first 3 days

20

Name 3 condtions that can result in poor quality colostrum.

cow dry less than 3-4 weeks, pre-milking, young cow, leaking teats, dirty udder & teats

21

To pasteurize colostrum it should be heated to what temp for how long?

140 degrees for 60 minutes

22

What are the 4 critical factors in colostrum management?

quality, quantity, cleanliness, timing

23

Name 3 storage options for excess colostrum.

refridgerate, freeze, add preservative add, ferment,

24

Frozen colostrum can be safely frozen for how long?

1 year

25

What are the recommended percentages for crude protein and fat in milk replacer using a conventional program?

20% crude protein, 20% fat

26

What are the recommended percentages for crude protein and fat in milk replacer using an accelerated program?

26-30% crude protein, 15-25% fat

27

Average daily gain, is a significant factor in monitoring what in dairy heifers?

growth rates

28

What is the most important factor in determining when to breed?

body size

29

Heifers show heats at what percentage of mature bodyweight?

40%

30

Heifers should be bred at what percentage of mature bodyweight?

55%

31

A heifer should calve for the first time when they are what percentage of mature bodyweight?

82%

32

What is weaning?

the act of taking a young animal off of milk as the main source of nutrition

33

What is the main criterion to use when determining when to wean a calf?

grain intake

34

What is the minimum amount of grain should a calf consume before weaning?

1.5 pounds per day, for 3 consecutive days

35

What is the recommended crude protein content for calf starter?

18-22%

36

Name four qualities of calf housing?

clean, dry, draft-free, well-ventilated

37

Name 3 systems of calf housing.

calf hutch, elevated stalls, pens on the floor, cold calf housing, counter slope system

38

Describe the difference between cold calf housing and warm calf housing.

in warm calf housing the environmental temp is controlled, but in cold calf housing the temp vaties with the outside temp

39

Give 3 advantages of calf hutches.

easily moved, better ventilation, prevent disease from spreading

40

What is the recommended level of fat in a lactating cow's ration?

5-7% of ration dry matter

41

Name 3 forms of fat used in dairy cattle rations.

animal fats, protected fats, whole oil seeds

42

Which VFA is the primary source of energy and milk fat?

acetic acid

43

Which VFA is a precursor to glucose?

proprionic acid

44

What are the two components of the milk solids portion of whole milk?

solids-not-fat and fat

45

What are the 3 components of the solids-not-fat portion of whole milk?

lactose, protein, minerals

46

Milk produced under sanitary conditions so that it can be consumed as liquid milk is known as what milk type and grade?

fluid grade milk, grade A

47

Milk that does not meet the fluid grade milk standards is known as what type and grade?

manufacturing grade milk, grade B

48

The document which sets the standards for Garde A milk is known as what?

Pasteurized Milk Ordinance PMO

49

Name a product from each of the four milk classes.

Class I - beverage milk, Class II- ice cream, Class III -cream cheese, Class IV-butter

50

Name the enzyme used to coagulate milk when making cheese.

rennet

51

The enzyme obtained from the lining of the calf's stomach that is used to coagulate casein protein when making cheese is called what?

rennin

52

What are the four classes of cheese?

very hard, hard, semi-soft, soft

53

How much does the average dairy cow drink?

30-50 gallons

54

Name 3 things that affect how much water a cow will drinks.

milk production, body size, temp of water, temp of environment, diet, relative humidity, water quality

55

Name 4 ways a cow loses water.

breathing, feces, milk, sweat, urine

56

When does a cow's water consumption peak?

as soon as cow leaves the milking parlor, when cow consumes large amounts of dry matter at feeding

57

Name 4 physiological functions of water.

transport nutrients, carry waste products to excretion, cool body, lubricate joints, fluid base for milk, acts as a solvent

58

What are the two types of carbohydrates?

structural (or fiber) and non-structural (non-fiber)

59

Give examples of the two types of carbohydrates.

(1)structural (or fiber) - examples are cellulose & hemi-cellulose found in forages (2) non-structural (non-fiber) - examples whole corn, rolled oats, molasses

60

How would a farmer go about determining the crude protein content in a feed?

multiply the nitrogen fraction by 6.25%

61

Ascorbic acid is also known as what vitamin?

Vitamin C

62

Vitamins are measured in what units?

IU - international units

63

Name 4 macrominerals.(think milk & swimming pool)

calcium, phosphorus, potassium, chlorine, manesium, sodium, sulfur

64

Name 4 microminerals.(think penny, iron or "C" and "I")

copper, cobalt, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium, zinc

65

What macromineral is needed in the largest quantity?

potassium

66

What is "ash"?

The mineral matter present in feed

67

Why does a farmer use forage testing?

to determine the nutrient content of forages

68

Name two methods of forage testing.

NIR, wet chemistry

69

Name 3 items a forage analysis report commonly contains.

dry matter, crude protein, soluble protein, total digestible nutrients, net energy lactation, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, ash

70

When sampling square bales of hay for forage testing, how many bales should be sampled?

20

71

Define dry matter.

dry matter is the portion of a feed that remains after all the water has been removed by drying

72

To perform a dry matter test at home, what 4 things are needed?

microwave oven, paper plate, water glass, gram scale

73

The amount of energy available to the animal for growth, reproduction, production and lactation is known as what?

net energy

74

The neutral detergent fiber measure is used to predict what?

feed intake

75

Name the compounds that make up the neutral detergent fiber.

cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin

76

Name two buffers commonly used in dairy cattle rations.

limestone, sodium bentonite, magnesium oxide, sodium bicarbonate

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