Flashcards in 2014 Review Questions Deck (76):
What part of the animal is used as a reference point to determine the height of the udder?
What are the main udder supports?
skin, lateral (side) suspensory ligament, median (middle) suspensory ligament
What ligament divides the udder in half?
median (middle) suspensory ligament
When showing a cow, the rear leg nearest the judge should be positioned how?
When showing a heifer, the rear leg nearest the judge should be positioned how?
Name the categories and points on the PDCA Cow Scorecard.
frame-15, dairy strength-25, rear feet & legs-20, udder-40
Name the categories and points on the PDCA Heifer Scorecard.
body capacity-10, dairy strength-20, feet and legs-30, frame-40
Name 4 reasons a cow can be disqualified from the show ring?
tampering to conceal faults, permanent lameness, total blindness, freemartin heifer, blind quarter
Name the stages of a female dairy animal's life.
calf to heifer to cow
Give 3 methods to identify calves.
eartag, tattoo, photo, sketch, freeze branding
On many dairy operations, heifers account for what percent of total farm expenses?
Name 3 points to consider when choosing a calf.
age, health, breed, pedigree, conformation
What are the 3 liquid diet choices for pre-weaned calves?
milk replacer, colostrum, whole milk
A calf should be fed how much milk every day?
10-17% of its body weight
When a calf nurses, the milk goes directly into what stomach compartment?
Milk that is secreted during the first 2-3 days after calving is called what?
Colostrum contains what special organisms that provide immunity to the calf?
Nae the 2 on-farm tools for measuring colostrum.
colostrometer, brix refractometer
How long should a newborn calf be fed colostrum?
first 3 days
Name 3 condtions that can result in poor quality colostrum.
cow dry less than 3-4 weeks, pre-milking, young cow, leaking teats, dirty udder & teats
To pasteurize colostrum it should be heated to what temp for how long?
140 degrees for 60 minutes
What are the 4 critical factors in colostrum management?
quality, quantity, cleanliness, timing
Name 3 storage options for excess colostrum.
refridgerate, freeze, add preservative add, ferment,
Frozen colostrum can be safely frozen for how long?
What are the recommended percentages for crude protein and fat in milk replacer using a conventional program?
20% crude protein, 20% fat
What are the recommended percentages for crude protein and fat in milk replacer using an accelerated program?
26-30% crude protein, 15-25% fat
Average daily gain, is a significant factor in monitoring what in dairy heifers?
What is the most important factor in determining when to breed?
Heifers show heats at what percentage of mature bodyweight?
Heifers should be bred at what percentage of mature bodyweight?
A heifer should calve for the first time when they are what percentage of mature bodyweight?
What is weaning?
the act of taking a young animal off of milk as the main source of nutrition
What is the main criterion to use when determining when to wean a calf?
What is the minimum amount of grain should a calf consume before weaning?
1.5 pounds per day, for 3 consecutive days
What is the recommended crude protein content for calf starter?
Name four qualities of calf housing?
clean, dry, draft-free, well-ventilated
Name 3 systems of calf housing.
calf hutch, elevated stalls, pens on the floor, cold calf housing, counter slope system
Describe the difference between cold calf housing and warm calf housing.
in warm calf housing the environmental temp is controlled, but in cold calf housing the temp vaties with the outside temp
Give 3 advantages of calf hutches.
easily moved, better ventilation, prevent disease from spreading
What is the recommended level of fat in a lactating cow's ration?
5-7% of ration dry matter
Name 3 forms of fat used in dairy cattle rations.
animal fats, protected fats, whole oil seeds
Which VFA is the primary source of energy and milk fat?
Which VFA is a precursor to glucose?
What are the two components of the milk solids portion of whole milk?
solids-not-fat and fat
What are the 3 components of the solids-not-fat portion of whole milk?
lactose, protein, minerals
Milk produced under sanitary conditions so that it can be consumed as liquid milk is known as what milk type and grade?
fluid grade milk, grade A
Milk that does not meet the fluid grade milk standards is known as what type and grade?
manufacturing grade milk, grade B
The document which sets the standards for Garde A milk is known as what?
Pasteurized Milk Ordinance PMO
Name a product from each of the four milk classes.
Class I - beverage milk, Class II- ice cream, Class III -cream cheese, Class IV-butter
Name the enzyme used to coagulate milk when making cheese.
The enzyme obtained from the lining of the calf's stomach that is used to coagulate casein protein when making cheese is called what?
What are the four classes of cheese?
very hard, hard, semi-soft, soft
How much does the average dairy cow drink?
Name 3 things that affect how much water a cow will drinks.
milk production, body size, temp of water, temp of environment, diet, relative humidity, water quality
Name 4 ways a cow loses water.
breathing, feces, milk, sweat, urine
When does a cow's water consumption peak?
as soon as cow leaves the milking parlor, when cow consumes large amounts of dry matter at feeding
Name 4 physiological functions of water.
transport nutrients, carry waste products to excretion, cool body, lubricate joints, fluid base for milk, acts as a solvent
What are the two types of carbohydrates?
structural (or fiber) and non-structural (non-fiber)
Give examples of the two types of carbohydrates.
(1)structural (or fiber) - examples are cellulose & hemi-cellulose found in forages (2) non-structural (non-fiber) - examples whole corn, rolled oats, molasses
How would a farmer go about determining the crude protein content in a feed?
multiply the nitrogen fraction by 6.25%
Ascorbic acid is also known as what vitamin?
Vitamins are measured in what units?
IU - international units
Name 4 macrominerals.(think milk & swimming pool)
calcium, phosphorus, potassium, chlorine, manesium, sodium, sulfur
Name 4 microminerals.(think penny, iron or "C" and "I")
copper, cobalt, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium, zinc
What macromineral is needed in the largest quantity?
What is "ash"?
The mineral matter present in feed
Why does a farmer use forage testing?
to determine the nutrient content of forages
Name two methods of forage testing.
NIR, wet chemistry
Name 3 items a forage analysis report commonly contains.
dry matter, crude protein, soluble protein, total digestible nutrients, net energy lactation, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, ash
When sampling square bales of hay for forage testing, how many bales should be sampled?
Define dry matter.
dry matter is the portion of a feed that remains after all the water has been removed by drying
To perform a dry matter test at home, what 4 things are needed?
microwave oven, paper plate, water glass, gram scale
The amount of energy available to the animal for growth, reproduction, production and lactation is known as what?
The neutral detergent fiber measure is used to predict what?
Name the compounds that make up the neutral detergent fiber.
cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin