2014 Major Nutrients - Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2014 Major Nutrients - Carbohydrates Deck (30):
1

Name the three elements which make up carbohydrates.

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

2

Which major nutrient is the main energy source for plants?

carbohydrates

3

What are the basic building blocks of carbohydrates?

simple sugars

4

Monosaccharides are classified according to the number of which atoms?

carbon atoms

5

A monosaccharide with six carbon atoms is classified as a what?

hexose

6

Name three common hexoses.

glucose, galactose, fructose, mannose

7

Name a common pentose.

ribose

8

The prefix “di” refers to how many?

two

9

The prefix “poly” in polysaccharide means it contains how many monosaccharides?

many

10

Name two common disaccharides.

lactose, sucrose

11

Two monosaccharides joined together form a what?

disaccharide

12

Which two monosaccharides combine to form lactose?

glucose, galactose

13

The prefix “mono” refers to how many?

one

14

The term saccharide refers to what common food?

sugar

15

Starch, cellulose and hemicellulose are common examples of what?

polysaccharides

16

Monosaccharides are converted by the rumen mircobes into what?

VFA - volatile fatty acids

17

Name the three most common volatile fatty acids produced rumen microbes.

butyrate, acetate, proprionate

18

Carbohydrates in feedstuffs are divided onto what two categories?

fiber, non-fiber

19

Name the two fibrous carbohydrates.

cellulose, hemicellulose

20

What two digestible fibrous carbohydrates are found in the cell walls of plants?

cellulose, hemicellulose

21

Give an example of a non-fiber carbohydrate.

starch, pectin, sugar

22

Why can’t monogastrics digest fibrous carbohydrates?

Because their stomachs do not contain the rumen microbes which can break down fibrous carbohydrates.

23

Name the two tests used to measure the amount of fibrous carbohydrates in dairy rations.

1)neutral detergent fiber assay
2)acid detergent fiber assay

24

What is the name of the fibrous carbohydrate that is unable to be digested, even by rumen microbes?

lignin

25

Which test is used to predict how much feed a cow will be able to eat, without exceeding the capacity of her digestive system?

neutral detergent fiber

26

Which test is used to predict the energy value of the feed, because of its association with digestibility?

acid detergent fiber

27

Explain the common method used to determine the amount of non-fiber carbohydrates, and why this method must be used.

The amount of protein, NDF, mineral and fat content is added up and subtracted from 100, because the NFC (non-fiber carbohydrates) are difficult to measure directly.

28

What number does the prefix “pent” represent?

five

29

What number does the prefix “hex” represent?

six

30

What is a monosaccharide?

simple sugar

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