Flashcards in 2014 Major Nutrients - Carbohydrates Deck (30):
Name the three elements which make up carbohydrates.
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Which major nutrient is the main energy source for plants?
What are the basic building blocks of carbohydrates?
Monosaccharides are classified according to the number of which atoms?
A monosaccharide with six carbon atoms is classified as a what?
Name three common hexoses.
glucose, galactose, fructose, mannose
Name a common pentose.
The prefix “di” refers to how many?
The prefix “poly” in polysaccharide means it contains how many monosaccharides?
Name two common disaccharides.
Two monosaccharides joined together form a what?
Which two monosaccharides combine to form lactose?
The prefix “mono” refers to how many?
The term saccharide refers to what common food?
Starch, cellulose and hemicellulose are common examples of what?
Monosaccharides are converted by the rumen mircobes into what?
VFA - volatile fatty acids
Name the three most common volatile fatty acids produced rumen microbes.
butyrate, acetate, proprionate
Carbohydrates in feedstuffs are divided onto what two categories?
Name the two fibrous carbohydrates.
What two digestible fibrous carbohydrates are found in the cell walls of plants?
Give an example of a non-fiber carbohydrate.
starch, pectin, sugar
Why can’t monogastrics digest fibrous carbohydrates?
Because their stomachs do not contain the rumen microbes which can break down fibrous carbohydrates.
Name the two tests used to measure the amount of fibrous carbohydrates in dairy rations.
1)neutral detergent fiber assay
2)acid detergent fiber assay
What is the name of the fibrous carbohydrate that is unable to be digested, even by rumen microbes?
Which test is used to predict how much feed a cow will be able to eat, without exceeding the capacity of her digestive system?
neutral detergent fiber
Which test is used to predict the energy value of the feed, because of its association with digestibility?
acid detergent fiber
Explain the common method used to determine the amount of non-fiber carbohydrates, and why this method must be used.
The amount of protein, NDF, mineral and fat content is added up and subtracted from 100, because the NFC (non-fiber carbohydrates) are difficult to measure directly.
What number does the prefix “pent” represent?
What number does the prefix “hex” represent?