Flashcards in Ruminant Digestion Deck (69):
When food leaves the mouth it travels down the esophagus by what action?
Name the first and largest compartment.
Name the compartment also known as the fermentation vat.
The rumen can hold how many gallons?
Name the two gases are produced in the rumen.
Methane, carbon dioxide
Bacteria, and protozoa are examples of what?
What purpose due the rumen bugs or microbes serve?
They break down the forages and grasses eaten by the dairy animal
Microbes provide 2/3 of what essential nutrient?
Rumen bugs are the reason ruminants can digest what?
Forages and grasses
What term describes the relationship between the microbes & the cow?
What is symbiosis?
A relationship in which each organisms gains something
Name the compartment next to the rumen.
Which compartment acts with the rumen to mix and store food?
Which compartment is known as the honeycomb?
The reticulum catches what so that it does not enter the omasum?
Large particles of feed
This compartment is known as the hardware stomach.
The compartment closest to the heart.
What does a farmer give cow to help prevent hardware disease?
The third compartment of the digestive system is what?
The omasum is also known as the what?
The term manyplies means what?
Name the primary acid found in the abomasum.
What compartment is also known as the true stomach?
The abomasum is much like the human stomach because they both do what?
Secrete enzymes and acids
What compartment helps to move food along to the small intestine?
After the abomasum, more digestion occurs here.
This is where most of the nutrients are absorbed.
Name the small structures that line the wall of the small intestine.
Feed material found in the small intestine is called what?
This organ absorbs all remaining water and stores waste.
Undigested food and waste is excreted here.
What two structural carbohydrates are broken down in the rumen?
Rumen microbes break down cellulose and hemicellulose into what?
Volatile fatty acids
Name the 3 volatile fatty acids produces in the rumen.
Butyrate, proprionate, acetate
Name the small projections that line the rumen.
What is another word for burping?
Name the three parts of the small intestine.
Ileum, jejunum, duodenum
Name the energy source that is broken down in the small intestine of the dairy cow.
What is the most concentrated energy source in dairy cattle rations?
What energy source contains 2.25 times the energy value of starch?
What is the recommended maximum level of fat in a lactating cow's ration of dry matter.
5 to 7%
What is the first organ to receive blood from the small intestine?
What organ secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine?
Name the 4 main processes for which a cow uses her feed.
Growth, reproduction, milk production, maintenance
Any chemical substance that provides nourishment to the body is called a what?
Name the 5 major nutrients contained in feedstuffs.
Protein, vitamin, minerals, energy(fats & carbohydrates), water
What is most likely to be the limiting nutrient for the high producing dairy cow?
What are the building blocks of fats and lipids?
Name an animal fat used in dairy cattle rations.
Name a protected fat used in dairy cattle ration
Name two kinds of whole oil seeds used in dairy cattle ration
whole cottonseeds, whole soybeans
List the three basic elements contained in carbohydrates.
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
What 2 structural carbohydrates (fiber carbohydrates) does the cow can use as a source of energy?
What 3 nonstructural carbohydrates (non-fiber carbohydrates) are the highly digestible parts of feed?
Sugar, starch, pectin
Which volatile fatty acids is the primary source of energy and milkfat?
Which volatile fatty acids is the precursor for glucose?
What is the major bufffer for maintaining optimum rumen pH?
How much saliva does the mature dairy cow produce each day?
Name 3 functions of saliva.
moistens food, lubricates food, acts as a buffer, provides a fluid base for nutrients, provides the proper environment for bacterial growth
How many teeth does a mature dairy cow have?
32 teeth, no upper front teeth
Chewing is also known as what?
Feed that a cow has regurgitated and is being re-chewed is called what?
The process in ruminants when semi-liquid ingesta is regurgitated into the esophagus, re-chewed, and re-swallowed for further digestion is called what?
Name three types of organisms that live in the rumen.
bacteria, fungi, protozoa
What is the ideal rumen pH?
5.9 - 6.2
On the pH scale, what is neutral?
On the pH scale, would a low pH (1-6) be considered acidic or basic?
On the pH scale, would a high pH (8-14) be considered acidic or basic?