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Flashcards in Ruminant Digestion Deck (69):
1

When food leaves the mouth it travels down the esophagus by what action?

peristalsis

2

Name the first and largest compartment.

rumen

3

Name the compartment also known as the fermentation vat.

rumen

4

The rumen can hold how many gallons?

40-60 gallons

5

Name the two gases are produced in the rumen.

Methane, carbon dioxide

6

Bacteria, and protozoa are examples of what?

microorganisms

7

What purpose due the rumen bugs or microbes serve?

They break down the forages and grasses eaten by the dairy animal

8

Microbes provide 2/3 of what essential nutrient?

Protein

9

Rumen bugs are the reason ruminants can digest what?

Forages and grasses

10

What term describes the relationship between the microbes & the cow?

Symbiotic

11

What is symbiosis?

A relationship in which each organisms gains something

12

Name the compartment next to the rumen.

reticulum

13

Which compartment acts with the rumen to mix and store food?

reticulum

14

Which compartment is known as the honeycomb?

reticulum

15

The reticulum catches what so that it does not enter the omasum?

Large particles of feed

16

This compartment is known as the hardware stomach.

Reticulum

17

The compartment closest to the heart.

Reticulum

18

What does a farmer give cow to help prevent hardware disease?

Magnet

19

The third compartment of the digestive system is what?

Omasum

20

The omasum is also known as the what?

Manyplies

21

The term manyplies means what?

Many layers

22

Name the primary acid found in the abomasum.

Hydrochloric acid

23

What compartment is also known as the true stomach?

Abomasum

24

The abomasum is much like the human stomach because they both do what?

Secrete enzymes and acids

25

What compartment helps to move food along to the small intestine?

Abomasum

26

After the abomasum, more digestion occurs here.

Small intestine

27

This is where most of the nutrients are absorbed.

Small intestine

28

Name the small structures that line the wall of the small intestine.

villi

29

Feed material found in the small intestine is called what?

chyme

30

This organ absorbs all remaining water and stores waste.

Large intestine

31

Undigested food and waste is excreted here.

Anus

32

What two structural carbohydrates are broken down in the rumen?

Cellulose, hemicellulose

33

Rumen microbes break down cellulose and hemicellulose into what?

Volatile fatty acids

34

Name the 3 volatile fatty acids produces in the rumen.

Butyrate, proprionate, acetate

35

Name the small projections that line the rumen.

papillae

36

What is another word for burping?

eructation

37

Name the three parts of the small intestine.

Ileum, jejunum, duodenum

38

Name the energy source that is broken down in the small intestine of the dairy cow.

fats

39

What is the most concentrated energy source in dairy cattle rations?

fats

40

What energy source contains 2.25 times the energy value of starch?

fats

41

What is the recommended maximum level of fat in a lactating cow's ration of dry matter.

5 to 7%

42

What is the first organ to receive blood from the small intestine?

liver

43

What organ secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine?

pancreas

44

Name the 4 main processes for which a cow uses her feed.

Growth, reproduction, milk production, maintenance

45

Any chemical substance that provides nourishment to the body is called a what?

nutrient

46

Name the 5 major nutrients contained in feedstuffs.

Protein, vitamin, minerals, energy(fats & carbohydrates), water

47

What is most likely to be the limiting nutrient for the high producing dairy cow?

energy

48

What are the building blocks of fats and lipids?

Fatty acids

49

Name an animal fat used in dairy cattle rations.

tallow

50

Name a protected fat used in dairy cattle ration

calcium soaps

51

Name two kinds of whole oil seeds used in dairy cattle ration

whole cottonseeds, whole soybeans

52

List the three basic elements contained in carbohydrates.

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

53

What 2 structural carbohydrates (fiber carbohydrates) does the cow can use as a source of energy?

Cellulose, hemicellulose

54

What 3 nonstructural carbohydrates (non-fiber carbohydrates) are the highly digestible parts of feed?

Sugar, starch, pectin

55

Which volatile fatty acids is the primary source of energy and milkfat?

Acetic acid

56

Which volatile fatty acids is the precursor for glucose?

Proprionic acid

57

What is the major bufffer for maintaining optimum rumen pH?

saliva

58

How much saliva does the mature dairy cow produce each day?

50-80 quarts

59

Name 3 functions of saliva.

moistens food, lubricates food, acts as a buffer, provides a fluid base for nutrients, provides the proper environment for bacterial growth

60

How many teeth does a mature dairy cow have?

32 teeth, no upper front teeth

61

Chewing is also known as what?

mastication

62

Feed that a cow has regurgitated and is being re-chewed is called what?

cud

63

The process in ruminants when semi-liquid ingesta is regurgitated into the esophagus, re-chewed, and re-swallowed for further digestion is called what?

rumination

64

Name three types of organisms that live in the rumen.

bacteria, fungi, protozoa

65

What is the ideal rumen pH?

5.9 - 6.2

66

On the pH scale, what is neutral?

7

67

On the pH scale, would a low pH (1-6) be considered acidic or basic?

acidic

68

On the pH scale, would a high pH (8-14) be considered acidic or basic?

basic

69

If the pH of the rumen drops below 5.9, the rumen is considered what?

acidotic

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