Flashcards in 2012 INT Contest Questions Deck (117):
Name the hormone that maintains pregnancy.
List 3 causes of scours.
overcrowding, overfeeding, unsanitary calving conditions, inadequate colostrum, poor quality milk replacer, poor quality colostrum, inadequate ventilation
How can you prevent Johannes disease?
prevent newborn calves and young animals from ingesting manure from adults through feed, water, environment or dam; calving areas clean and dry, free of manure, well bedded; remove calf from dam immediately after birth; do use same equipment to clean manure and to load feed; do not walk in feed bunks; sell at birth all calves from positive test cows; do ot allow positive test cows to calve; identify & remove infected cows alond with their manure
What is the difference between sterility and infertility?
sterility describes and animal that cannot produce while infertility describes and animal that is neither normally fertile nor totally sterile
Name 3 macrominerals.
calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulfur
What is a metabolic disorder?
a condition which occurs when problems occur in any metabolic function of the body
What is the formula to calculate breeding value?
Sire's transmitting ability + dam's tansmitting ability
Dairy cattle have how many chromosome pairs?
When is a bullproof is available?
3-5 years after semen distributed
What is one of the frequent causes of antibiotics in milk?
What is a CAFO? What do the letter stand for?
concentrated animal feeding operation
Name 2 elements found in protein.
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
What fast food chain uses the most milk?
What would disqualify you/your animal from a dairy cattle show?
blid quarter, freemartin heifer, permanent lameness, total blindness, tampering to concela faults
What is the milk process called that heats milk?
Name 2 external parasites.
lice, ticks, flies, mites
What vitamin is essential for strong, healthy bones and teeth?
Give 3 methods to reduce soil erosion.
contour cropping, cover crop, grass waterways, reduced tillage, soil seeding, strip cropping, terracing, wind breaks
Name the 2 main functions of the ovary.
poduce ova; secrete hormones
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
genotype is the genetic makeup of the animal; phenotype is the observed trait of an individual that results from the genotype
Explain the difference between mobidity and mortality?
morbidity is the nimber of sick animals while mortality is the number of dead animals
Where is a weight tape placed?
around the body, behind the shoulders
Describe the correlation between age and milk consumption.
as age INCREASES then milk consumption DECREASES
Cheese and nonfat milk are traded where?
Chicago Mercantile Exchange
List 2 valuable nutrients lost through silage seepage.
protein, minerals, organic acids, soluable sugars
A farmer adminsiters medicine without a vet that is not recommended for the illness. Is this legal?
no extra-lable drug use is not legal
Name the symptoms of ringworm and how you would treat it.
scaly patches on skin, hair loss; treat with anti-fungal cream
The 305 milk production is highest in cows calving in what months?
November, December, January
The first milk from the cow is called what?
Where are wattles located on a dairy goat?
under the neck on either side
What is the cows first line of defense against mastitis?
What organ is repsosible for gluconeogensis?
What color is a colostrometer when it is reading high quality?
green - high quality/ red - low quality
Which organ follows the omasum?
Why is it beneficial to cross breed to separate breeds?
crossbreeding increases hybrid vigor (increases the number of heterozygous gene pairs(Rr), which concentrates superior qualities so that offspring perform above the average of the parents)
What term describes the movement of nitrates through soils to groundwater?
What is the most important factor to consider when breeding a heifer?
What vitamin is necessary to maintain proper eyesight?
What types of secretions are produced by the pancreas?
buffers that neutralize the acid from the abomasum, enzymes that aid digestion, hormones like insulin and glucagon
What is withdrawal time and where is it found?
The withdrawal time is the time required to wait after giving an animal medication, before its milk or meat may be sold
What is a toxin?
a poison produced by a microorganism that kills cells
What organs are infected by the disease BLV or bovine leukosis virus?
lymph nodes, heart, GI tract, liver, spleen, uterus, kidney (not in our literature)
What does the acronym MUN stand for?
milk urea nitrogen - shows how well nitrogen and fermentable carbohydrates are balanced in the ration
During which season do most abortions occur?
summer (not found in our literature)
Who was the first bull to produce 1 million units of semen?
Which breed produces the most milk on average?
What is the corpus luteum?
temporary gland that forms on the ovary after the ovum is released
According to the PDCA Unified Scorecard, what is a perfect score for the rump?
A squawking teat cup line is a sign of what malfunction?
milking wet teats, improper liner design, cluster weight, vacuum fluctuations
What document establishes the standards for Grade A milk?
PMO - Pasteurized Milk Ordinance
Name the six breeds that can have off white spots?
Ayrshire, Guernsey, Red & White and Black & White Holstein, Jersey, Milking Shorthorn Note: ONLY Brown Swiss are NOT allowed any white markings
An ear tattoo is allowable identification for which breeds?
Brown Swiss, Milking Shorthorn
In the dairy show ring, which direction do you walk when showing your cow?
What happens to the fiber content of grass as it matures?
fiber content increases with age
What is added to fat free milk in order to whiten it?
What is the term for excessive gas in the rumen?
Give 3 factors that affect the dairy cow's environment?
climate, season of the year, herd size, housing type, frequency and duration of confinement housing, management of cows and facilities
Give 4 reasons cows are culled from the herd?
low production, mastitis, reproduction, udder, feet and legs, disease, imjury, disposition
Name 4 common dairy bedding materials?
newspaper, recycled manure solids, sand, sawdust, shavings, straw
Considering nutrient management, what affects the nutrient levels of manure?
climate, crop, amount of added feed, bedding and water, method of storage, method of application, method of collection, time of application, type of feed ration
What are 4 important points to consider when choosing a cow?
age, breed, health, pedigree, conformation
Who holds the patent for condensed milk?
Energy comes from what 3 dietary sources?
fats, proteins, carbohydrates
Name the primary protein in milk?
Once calves are weaned they can be moved from individual hutches into group housing. The calves are sorted into groups based on what?
size and age
A deficiency of what mineral is responsible for milk fever?
What country has the most cows?
What is the male reproductive hormone?
Increased levels of Vitamin K in forage increased incidence of what metabolic disease?
Soybean meal is added to rations to provide what nutrient?
Who receives an ovum from a donor? (ova are eggs, ovum is one egg)
What does the term anaerobic mean?
How often does one give a Prosilac injection?
every 14 days
What are the two leading causes for death in cattle?
Minerals needed in the largest amount are called what?
What is the main function of the large intestine?
What do you call the movement of nutrients across the surface of soils to surface water?
runoff (also referred to as non-point souce pollution)
What is the optimal temperature for milk stored on the farm?
If a vet gives a subcutaneous needle, how is the needle going into the cow?
going under the skin (SUB Q)
What is the name of the process that mixes the fat into the milk?
What is a reduction sale?
a sale of dairy cows by the farmer
The letters HL represent the gentic code for what trait?
What is the primary acid found in the abomasum?
How many amino acids are found in proteins?
20 standard amino acid, 10 are essential, lysine and methionine are the most limiting amino acids
Blackleg is an acute fever producing disease that occurs in what farm animals?
cattle and sheep
What is the term used to describe the process of rechewing forages?
What does the acronym TMDL stand for?
total maximum daily load (a term in the Clean Water Act that describes a value of the maximum amount of pollutant a body a water can receive and still meet water quality standards)
Which farm animal is known as seasonally polyestrous?
goat (cows are polyestous and can go into heat several times a year, however, goats go into heat only during a specific season of the year)
Leukocytes are also known as what?
white blood cells
What is the term for when a cow belches?
Vitamin K is essential for what?
the clotting of blood
What methods can be used to prevent new mastitis cases?
teat dipping, treating dry cows with antibiotics
What is the recommended crude protein content of calf starter?
What is GnRH and what is its function?
Gonadotropin releasing hormone, which causes release of LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
What is palatability?
What would a calving evaluation score be if a cow's calving was extrememly difficult?
What is bypass protein?
protein unchanged by the rumen microbes
The genetic base for USDA-AIPL genetic evaluations is updated every five years. What year was it last updated?
What volume of colostrum should be given to a newborn calf within one hour after birth?
3-4 quarts (the calf's ability to absorb antibodies decreases within 12 hours)
What is the sac-like structure in the udder, where milk is produced?
What are 2 signs of a nervous cow?
How long is the estrous cycle?
What are the dangers of overmilking?
teat damage, mastitis
The abomasum contains what enzymes?
pepsin and renin
What is the average length of thedairy cattl small intestine?
What mineral has a negative charge?
chlorine and sulfur (these are anions - negatively charged ion - a molecule or atom where the electrons and protons are not equal, giving the molecule a postitive or negative charge)
What nutrient is 75% of the cow by weight?
Name 2 factors that affect the quality of hay?
the type, storage, fertilizer, cut
In 2012,there were 34 million acres in CRP. What is the CRP?
Conservation Reserve Program
Name 4 reasons a cow goes lame.
abscess, foot rot, infection, injury, soft sole syndrom, trimming too close
Name the steps of rumination.
regurgitate, masticate, swallow, eructation
The plug that forms in the teat canal is made of what?
Give 2 things to do immediately after a calf is born.
check breathing, make physical assesment, feed colostrum
Give 4 ways water is excreted by the cow.
convection, conduction, radiation, evaporation
Is shelled corn a forage or a concentrate?
What is the liquid in the small intestine called?