2012 INT Contest Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2012 INT Contest Questions Deck (117):
1

Name the hormone that maintains pregnancy.

progesterone

2

List 3 causes of scours.

overcrowding, overfeeding, unsanitary calving conditions, inadequate colostrum, poor quality milk replacer, poor quality colostrum, inadequate ventilation

3

How can you prevent Johannes disease?

prevent newborn calves and young animals from ingesting manure from adults through feed, water, environment or dam; calving areas clean and dry, free of manure, well bedded; remove calf from dam immediately after birth; do use same equipment to clean manure and to load feed; do not walk in feed bunks; sell at birth all calves from positive test cows; do ot allow positive test cows to calve; identify & remove infected cows alond with their manure

4

What is the difference between sterility and infertility?

sterility describes and animal that cannot produce while infertility describes and animal that is neither normally fertile nor totally sterile

5

Name 3 macrominerals.

calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulfur

6

What is a metabolic disorder?

a condition which occurs when problems occur in any metabolic function of the body

7

What is the formula to calculate breeding value?

Sire's transmitting ability + dam's tansmitting ability

8

Dairy cattle have how many chromosome pairs?

30

9

When is a bullproof is available?

3-5 years after semen distributed

10

What is one of the frequent causes of antibiotics in milk?

masititis

11

What is a CAFO? What do the letter stand for?

concentrated animal feeding operation

12

Name 2 elements found in protein.

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

13

What fast food chain uses the most milk?

McDonald's

14

What would disqualify you/your animal from a dairy cattle show?

blid quarter, freemartin heifer, permanent lameness, total blindness, tampering to concela faults

15

What is the milk process called that heats milk?

pasteurization

16

Name 2 external parasites.

lice, ticks, flies, mites

17

What vitamin is essential for strong, healthy bones and teeth?

Vitamin D

18

Give 3 methods to reduce soil erosion.

contour cropping, cover crop, grass waterways, reduced tillage, soil seeding, strip cropping, terracing, wind breaks

19

Name the 2 main functions of the ovary.

poduce ova; secrete hormones

20

What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?

genotype is the genetic makeup of the animal; phenotype is the observed trait of an individual that results from the genotype

21

Explain the difference between mobidity and mortality?

morbidity is the nimber of sick animals while mortality is the number of dead animals

22

Where is a weight tape placed?

around the body, behind the shoulders

23

Describe the correlation between age and milk consumption.

as age INCREASES then milk consumption DECREASES

24

Cheese and nonfat milk are traded where?

Chicago Mercantile Exchange

25

List 2 valuable nutrients lost through silage seepage.

protein, minerals, organic acids, soluable sugars

26

A farmer adminsiters medicine without a vet that is not recommended for the illness. Is this legal?

no extra-lable drug use is not legal

27

Name the symptoms of ringworm and how you would treat it.

scaly patches on skin, hair loss; treat with anti-fungal cream

28

The 305 milk production is highest in cows calving in what months?

November, December, January

29

The first milk from the cow is called what?

colostrum

30

Where are wattles located on a dairy goat?

under the neck on either side

31

What is the cows first line of defense against mastitis?

teat canal

32

What organ is repsosible for gluconeogensis?

liver

33

What color is a colostrometer when it is reading high quality?

green - high quality/ red - low quality

34

Which organ follows the omasum?

abomasum

35

Why is it beneficial to cross breed to separate breeds?

crossbreeding increases hybrid vigor (increases the number of heterozygous gene pairs(Rr), which concentrates superior qualities so that offspring perform above the average of the parents)

36

What term describes the movement of nitrates through soils to groundwater?

leeching

37

What is the most important factor to consider when breeding a heifer?

body size

38

What vitamin is necessary to maintain proper eyesight?

Vitamin A

39

What types of secretions are produced by the pancreas?

buffers that neutralize the acid from the abomasum, enzymes that aid digestion, hormones like insulin and glucagon

40

What is withdrawal time and where is it found?

The withdrawal time is the time required to wait after giving an animal medication, before its milk or meat may be sold

41

What is a toxin?

a poison produced by a microorganism that kills cells

42

What organs are infected by the disease BLV or bovine leukosis virus?

lymph nodes, heart, GI tract, liver, spleen, uterus, kidney (not in our literature)

43

What does the acronym MUN stand for?

milk urea nitrogen - shows how well nitrogen and fermentable carbohydrates are balanced in the ration

44

During which season do most abortions occur?

summer (not found in our literature)

45

Who was the first bull to produce 1 million units of semen?

Fisher-Place Mandingo

46

Which breed produces the most milk on average?

Holstein

47

What is the corpus luteum?

temporary gland that forms on the ovary after the ovum is released

48

According to the PDCA Unified Scorecard, what is a perfect score for the rump?

5 points

49

A squawking teat cup line is a sign of what malfunction?

milking wet teats, improper liner design, cluster weight, vacuum fluctuations

50

What document establishes the standards for Grade A milk?

PMO - Pasteurized Milk Ordinance

51

Name the six breeds that can have off white spots?

Ayrshire, Guernsey, Red & White and Black & White Holstein, Jersey, Milking Shorthorn Note: ONLY Brown Swiss are NOT allowed any white markings

52

An ear tattoo is allowable identification for which breeds?

Brown Swiss, Milking Shorthorn

53

In the dairy show ring, which direction do you walk when showing your cow?

clockwise

54

What happens to the fiber content of grass as it matures?

fiber content increases with age

55

What is added to fat free milk in order to whiten it?

titanium dioxide

56

What is the term for excessive gas in the rumen?

bloat

57

Give 3 factors that affect the dairy cow's environment?

climate, season of the year, herd size, housing type, frequency and duration of confinement housing, management of cows and facilities

58

Give 4 reasons cows are culled from the herd?

low production, mastitis, reproduction, udder, feet and legs, disease, imjury, disposition

59

Name 4 common dairy bedding materials?

newspaper, recycled manure solids, sand, sawdust, shavings, straw

60

Considering nutrient management, what affects the nutrient levels of manure?

climate, crop, amount of added feed, bedding and water, method of storage, method of application, method of collection, time of application, type of feed ration

61

What are 4 important points to consider when choosing a cow?

age, breed, health, pedigree, conformation

62

Who holds the patent for condensed milk?

Borden

63

Energy comes from what 3 dietary sources?

fats, proteins, carbohydrates

64

Name the primary protein in milk?

casein

65

Once calves are weaned they can be moved from individual hutches into group housing. The calves are sorted into groups based on what?

size and age

66

A deficiency of what mineral is responsible for milk fever?

calcium

67

What country has the most cows?

India

68

What is the male reproductive hormone?

testosterone

69

Increased levels of Vitamin K in forage increased incidence of what metabolic disease?

milk fever

70

Soybean meal is added to rations to provide what nutrient?

protein

71

Who receives an ovum from a donor? (ova are eggs, ovum is one egg)

recipient

72

What does the term anaerobic mean?

without oxygen

73

How often does one give a Prosilac injection?

every 14 days

74

What are the two leading causes for death in cattle?

scours, pneumonia

75

Minerals needed in the largest amount are called what?

macrominerals

76

What is the main function of the large intestine?

absorb water

77

What do you call the movement of nutrients across the surface of soils to surface water?

runoff (also referred to as non-point souce pollution)

78

What is the optimal temperature for milk stored on the farm?

under 40ºF

79

If a vet gives a subcutaneous needle, how is the needle going into the cow?

going under the skin (SUB Q)

80

What is the name of the process that mixes the fat into the milk?

homogenization

81

What is a reduction sale?

a sale of dairy cows by the farmer

82

The letters HL represent the gentic code for what trait?

hairless

83

What is the primary acid found in the abomasum?

hydrochloric acid

84

How many amino acids are found in proteins?

20 standard amino acid, 10 are essential, lysine and methionine are the most limiting amino acids

85

Blackleg is an acute fever producing disease that occurs in what farm animals?

cattle and sheep

86

What is the term used to describe the process of rechewing forages?

remasticiation

87

What does the acronym TMDL stand for?

total maximum daily load (a term in the Clean Water Act that describes a value of the maximum amount of pollutant a body a water can receive and still meet water quality standards)

88

Which farm animal is known as seasonally polyestrous?

goat (cows are polyestous and can go into heat several times a year, however, goats go into heat only during a specific season of the year)

89

Leukocytes are also known as what?

white blood cells

90

What is the term for when a cow belches?

eructation

91

Vitamin K is essential for what?

the clotting of blood

92

What methods can be used to prevent new mastitis cases?

teat dipping, treating dry cows with antibiotics

93

What is the recommended crude protein content of calf starter?

18-22%

94

What is GnRH and what is its function?

Gonadotropin releasing hormone, which causes release of LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)

95

What is palatability?

tastiness

96

What would a calving evaluation score be if a cow's calving was extrememly difficult?

5

97

What is bypass protein?

protein unchanged by the rumen microbes

98

The genetic base for USDA-AIPL genetic evaluations is updated every five years. What year was it last updated?

2010

99

What volume of colostrum should be given to a newborn calf within one hour after birth?

3-4 quarts (the calf's ability to absorb antibodies decreases within 12 hours)

100

What is the sac-like structure in the udder, where milk is produced?

alveoli

101

What are 2 signs of a nervous cow?

bawling, pacing

102

How long is the estrous cycle?

21 days

103

What are the dangers of overmilking?

teat damage, mastitis

104

The abomasum contains what enzymes?

pepsin and renin

105

What is the average length of thedairy cattl small intestine?

130 feet

106

What mineral has a negative charge?

chlorine and sulfur (these are anions - negatively charged ion - a molecule or atom where the electrons and protons are not equal, giving the molecule a postitive or negative charge)

107

What nutrient is 75% of the cow by weight?

water

108

Name 2 factors that affect the quality of hay?

the type, storage, fertilizer, cut

109

In 2012,there were 34 million acres in CRP. What is the CRP?

Conservation Reserve Program

110

Name 4 reasons a cow goes lame.

abscess, foot rot, infection, injury, soft sole syndrom, trimming too close

111

Name the steps of rumination.

regurgitate, masticate, swallow, eructation

112

The plug that forms in the teat canal is made of what?

keratin

113

Give 2 things to do immediately after a calf is born.

check breathing, make physical assesment, feed colostrum

114

Give 4 ways water is excreted by the cow.

convection, conduction, radiation, evaporation

115

Is shelled corn a forage or a concentrate?

concentrate

116

What is the liquid in the small intestine called?

chyme

117

Give 2 methods used to detect pregnancy.

not coming into heat, ultrasound

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