The cell bodies of the sensory neurons are in clusters of neurons outside the spinal-cord, called the ____ ____ ____.
dorsal root ganglia
The H-shaped ____ ____ in the centre of the spinal cord is densely packed with cell bodies and dendrites.
Many neurons of the spinal-cord send exons from the grey matter to the brain or other parts of the spinal cord through the ____ ____, which consists mostly of myelinated axons.
The ____ ____ ____ consists of neurons that receive information from and send commands to the heart, intestines, and other organs.
autonomic nervous system
The autonomic nervous system has two parts: the ____ and ____ nervous systems.
sympathetic and parasympathetic
The ____ ____ ____, a network of nerves that prepare the organs for vigourous activity, consists of chains of ganglia just to the left and right of the spinal-cords central regions.
sympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic axons prepare the organs for "____ or ____" – increasing breathing and heart rate and decreasing digestive activity.
fight or flight
The ____ ____ ____ facilitates vegetative, nonemergency responses.
parasympathetic nervous system
The term para means "beside" or "related to", and ____ activities are related to, and generally the opposite of the sympathetic activities.
The parasympathetic nervous system is also known as the ____ system because it consists of the cranial nerves and nerves from the sacral spinal-cord.
Long ____ axons extend from the spinal-cord to parasympathetic ganglia close to each internal organ. Shorter ____ fibres then extend from the parasympathetic ganglia into the organs themselves.
preganglionic : postganglionic
Parasympathetic activity decreases heartrate, increases digestive rate, and in general, ____ ____.
The parasympathetic nervous systems postganglionic axons release the neurotransmitter ____. Most of the postganglionic synapses of the sympathetic nervous system use ____.
acetylcholine : norepinephrine
Because the two systems, the PNS and the SNS, ues different transmitters, certain drugs ____ or ____ one system or the other.
excite or inhibit
The brain has three major divisions: ____, the ____, and the ____.
hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
The hindbrain, the posterior part of the brain, consists of the ____, the ____, and the ____.
medulla, pons, cerebellum
The medulla and pons, the midbrain, and certain central structures of the forebrain constitute the ____.
The ____, or medulla oblongata, is just above the spinal-cord and can be regarded as an enlarged extension of the spinal-cord into the skull.
The medulla controls vital reflexes – including breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing, and sneezing – through the ____ ____, which control sensations from the head, muscle movements, and much of the parasympathetic output to the organs.
Just as the lower parts of the body are connected to the spinal-cord by sensory and motor nerves, the receptors and muscles of the head and organs connect to the brain by ____ pairs of cranial nerves.
12. One of each pair on the right side and one on the left.
The ____ lies anterior and ventral to the medulla.
In the pons, axons from each half of the brain cross to the opposite side of the spinal-cord so that the left hemisphere controls muscles on the ____ side of the body and the right hemisphere controls the ____ side.
right : left
Then the door and ponds also contains the ____ ____ and the raphe system.
The reticular formation has ____ and ____ portions. The descending portion is one of several brain areas that control the motor areas of the spinal-cord. The ascended portion sends output to much of the cerebral cortex, selectively increasing arousal and attention in one area or another.
descended and ascending
The ____ ____ also sends axons too much of the forebrain, modifying the brain's readiness to respond to stimuli.
The ____ is a large hindbrain structure with many deep folds. It is long been known for its contribution to the control of movement.
The ____ is in the middle of the brain, although in adult mammals it is dwarfed and surrounded by the forebrain.
The roof of the midbrain is called the ____.
The swelling is on each side of the tectum are the superior ____ and the inferior ____. Both are important for sensory processing – the inferior ____ for hearing and the superior ____ for vision.
Under the tectum lies the ____, the intermediate level of the midbrain.
The tegmentum includes the nuclei for the ____ and ____ ____ nerves, parts of the reticular formation, and extensions of the pathways between the forebrain and the spinal-cord or hindbrain.
third and fourth cranial nerves
Another mid brain structure, the ____ ____, gives rise to a dopamine-containing pathway that facilitates readiness for movement.