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Flashcards in Abnormal Immune Response Deck (32):
1

What categories of immunodeficiency are there?

Primary and secondary

2

Name the 5 types of immunodeficiency

T-Cell disorders
B-cell disorders
T and B cell disorders
Complement disorders
Disorders of phagocytosis

3

Treatment of immunodeficiency

Gamma globulin (antibody) replacement therapy or bone marrow or thymus transplant

4

Hypersensitivity is?

Over exaggerated or inappropriate immune response

5

What types of hypersensitivity are there?

Allergy, cytotoxic, immune complex, and delayed

6

What are the characteristics of allergy HS?

Most common type of hypersensitivity, due to allergens and is a rapid response

7

Primary immunodeficiency is?

Congenital or genetic, resulting from a development failure

8

Secondary immunodeficiency is?

Acquired post-natal from infection, cancer treatment or immunosuppressive drugs

9

Cytotoxic HS

Antibodies mistarget surface antigens on self cells. Antigen bearing cells are destroyed by complement, phagocytosis and inflammation

10

What is an example of cytotoxic HS?

Incompatible blood transfusion

11

Immune complex HS characteristics

antibody-antigen complex (immune complex) is deposited in endothelium of capillaries and when machrophages kill IC holes form in endothelium

12

Why is the immune complex not broken down?

Because of size or because it is insoluble

13

Delayed HS

Macrophage ingests microbe and presents it to T cell which becomes sensitized, then cytotoxic T cells are produced which destroy the the self-cell leading to inflammation and tissue damage

14

What is an example of delayed HS

TB test

15

What are the types of shock?

Cardiogenic, hypovolemic, obstructive, and distributive

16

What is anaphylactic shock?

Severe allergic reaction

17

What is immunodeficiency?

Partial or complete loss of the immune response

18

Allergy HS is divided into what two categories

Sensitization and re-exposure

19

Sensitization phase of allergy HS

Exposure to allergen leads to a helper T cell stimulating B cells which release IgE molecules that attach to mast cell, making the mast cell sensitized

20

How many times does sensitization occur?

Only once

21

Re-Exposure phase of allergy HS

The antigen binds directly onto IgE on mast cell which leads to mediator release and inflammation

22

Anaphylactic shock patho physiology

Since mast cells were previously sensitized and flowing throughout the whole body, the allergic reaction is systemic when the antigen binds to the mast cell

23

What occurs in the body during anaphylactic shock?

Excessive systemic vasodilation, increase permeability, decrease vascular resistance leading to hypoperfusion, and edema systemically

24

What is a bronchospasm?

When mediators bind to smooth muscle in the respiratory tract and the muscle constricts and stays constricted

25

Characteristics of septic shock are what?

Systemic vasodilation, hypoperfusion and hypotension due to infection and many mediators being released

26

What does septic shock result in?

Multiple organ dysfunction

27

What occurs during autoimmunity?

Antibodies target self antigens

28

Why does autoimmunity occur?

Because there is a loss of self-tolerance and confusion occurs between self and non-self

29

What three ways can self-tolerance be lost?

Abnormal T cell activity, molecular mimicry, or exposure of previously masked self-antigens

30

What is an example of abnormal T cell activity resulting in autoimmunity?

Cytotoxic T cells are not suppressed once foreign microbe has been destroyed

31

What is an example of molecular mimicry resulting in autoimmunity?

Self cell has very similar epitope as microbe leading to confusion of antibody and it accidentally bonds to self cell

32

What is an example of exposure of previously masked self antigens resulting in autoimmunity?

Proteins that were kept internally rather than externally, but during injury the internal proteins moved to the surface of the cell to compensate for damage leading to the antibodies not recognizing these unmarked self cells and thinking they're foreign