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Flashcards in Brain Injury - Intracranial Pressure Deck (20):
1

What occurs if the CPP is less than 40?

Ischemia & infarction of brain tissue may occur

2

What are the components that comprise the cranial content

Brain tissue
CSF
Blood

3

What is the Monro-Kellie Hypothesis?

That if one of the components of cranial content changes then one or both of the others compensate for it.

4

What does the cranial content equal?

Icp

5

What is an increased icp often associated with?

Proliferating lesion - either a tumor or hemorrhage

6

Which component of the cranial contents is easiest to displace?

CSF

7

What is the first compliance that occurs when there's an increased ICP?

Displacement and or reabsorption of CSF

8

What is the second compliance of increased icp?

Decrease in blood flow to brain. Can cause hypoxia

9

What is the final consequence of increase icp?

Compression and displacement of brain tissue through the foremen magnum which leads to death

10

What is the cushing's reflex triggered by?

Ischemia to brain

11

What is the cushing's traid?

Widening pulse pressure
Reflective bradycardia
Irregular breathing

12

What causes a hematoma?

A hemorrhage from vascular trauma

13

What do bleeding and hematomas in the cranium result in?

Increased icp

14

Who are hemorrhage sand hematomas most commonly present in?

Individuals >50

15

What happens to neural function from hematomas and hemorrhage?

Loss of neural function in the affected area of the brain leads to affected target area in body

16

What types of hematomas are there?

Intracerebral
Subdural
Epidural

17

Where is an intracerebral hemorrhage located? What causes it?

Within the brain tissue
Results from a vessel hemorrhage

18

Where is a subdural hematoma located? What happens to the surrounding tissue?

Between the dura and arachnoid mater. It forms a pocket between the two layers
The cells within the hematoma lyse leading to increased concentration within the hematoma and then fluid influxes from surrounding cells which dehydrates the brain tissue

19

Where is an epidural hematoma located? What usually causes it? Which artery is most commonly affected?

Between the skull and dura mater
Due to head injury and fracture
Middle meningeal artery commonly affected

20

What is CPP?

Cerebral perfusion pressure. It is the pressure necessary for blood to perfuse the brain tissue properly