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Flashcards in Neoplasia Deck (39):
1

What categories can neoplasms be broken into?

Benign and malignant

2

Characteristics of a benign neoplasm

Uncontrolled, slow growth of cells that are differentiated, non invasive

3

Characteristics of a malignant neoplasm

Disorderly, rapid undifferentiated growth that does not stop. Cancerous. It kills local tissue to make space for itself, very invasive

4

What is cancer due to?

Mutated genes

5

Which gene is defective in most cancers?

TP53 gene

6

What does the TP53 gene do?

Causes apoptosis when DNA is damaged

7

What do DNA repair genes do?

"Spell check" by fixing incorrect DNA sequence, detect and fix altered genes

8

What do Proto Oncogenes do?

They increase cell division

9

What happens if the Proto oncogene is mutated?

Uncontrolled cell division occurs leading to increased tissue growth

10

What does the tumor suppressor gene do?

Stops cell division and decrease cell growth

11

What happens if the tumor suppressor gene is mutated?

Cell division is uninhibited and there is an increase in tissue/cell growth

12

What is an oncogene?

Causes malignant or cancerous growth

13

What is the suffix for a benign tumor?

OMA

14

What is the suffix for a malignant tumor in epithelium and mesenchyme?

Carcinoma in epithelium and sarcoma in mesenchyme

15

How big does a tunic have to be in order to be clinically detectable?

1 cm

16

How big does a tumor get every 100 days?

Doubles in size

17

What are the three methods of spread?

Extension and invasion, seeding in body cavities, and metastasis via blood or lymph

18

Extension and invasion

Is local and the tumor will grow and kill normal tissue in that specific area

19

Seeding in body cavities

Is not local, malignant cells will drop off in a body cavity and begin to grow

20

Metastasis via blood/lymph

Distance spread, malignant cells spread from primary site to secondary site

21

What are common secondary sites?

Lymphatic system

22

In what order does the cancer spread after reaching the secondary site?

Liver, lungs, bones, and brain

23

What is a requirement of a secondary site?

It must has good perfusion

24

What occurs during stage 1 of tumor growth?

A tumor secretes enzymes that destroy normal tissue and emboli enters blood or lymph vessel

25

What occurs during stage 2 of tumor growth?

Emboli travel via blood/lymph and once it reaches a capillary bed it attached to endothelial wall. Emboli uses cytokines and growth factor to determine the best secondary site

26

What occurs during stage 3 of tumor growth?

Angiogenesis and cell growth secondary site

27

What does staging a tumor do?

Places tumor at a stage in its progression

28

Describe the TNM system

T= determines size using numbers from 0-4
N= extent of regional lymph node involvement
M= extent of metastasis

29

What does TNMx mean?

The tumor cannot be assessed

30

How to grade a tumor

Using numbers 1-4, grades the tumor locally

31

What are the 6 cancer treatment options?

Radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, surgery, and combination therapy

32

Radiation therapy

Free radical production destroy malignant cells by disrupting DNA bonds but is not limited to only cancer cells

33

Chemotherapy

Use of drugs to target cell division which slows growth, but is not limited to only malignant cells

34

Surgery

Excise tumor, best option if all malignant cells can be excised, run risk of not getting them all

35

Immunotherapy

Cytokines and antibodies are given to kick start immune response to kill malignant cells, but immune cels eventually are not enough to destroy proliferating malignant cells, often used with chemo and is not used as a stand alone therapy

36

Hormone therapy

Taking away hormone support of tumor (anti-androgen for example) or over-supplying tumor with hormone to down regulate receptors, can only be used on hormone dependent tumor a and disrupts regular function

37

Combination therapy

Radiation and surgery, combination of main treatments and at times immunotherapy may be added

38

What are the problems associated with cancer treatment?

Killing normal cells, not precise, and recurrence of cancer

39

What is a neoplasm?

An abnormal mass as a result from neoplasia