Flashcards in Inflammation Deck (32):
Inflammation is a response to what?
What are the two main goals of acute inflammation?
Localize agents of injury, and remove agents of injury
Acute inflammation is characterized as?
Short in duration and is the initial or early response
Chronic inflammation is characterized by?
Being longer in duration and problematic
Acute inflammation can be broken into which two categories?
Vascular response and cellular response
Which mediators release histamine and prostaglandin during the vascular response?
Leukocytes, mast cells and platelets
What results from histamine release?
Increased vascular permeability and increased dilation
What results from prostaglandins being released?
Increased permeability, increased dilation and mediation of pain
Why is vasoconstriction an immediate response during the vascular response of acute inflammation?
To minimize blood loss
What results from vasodilation when it occurs later during the vascular response phase of acute inflammation?
Increased blood flow resulting in redness and warmth, increased permeability and exudate begins to form
What causes swelling?
The shift of exudate into the tissues
What are the three key occurrences of the vascular response?
Vasoconstriction, vasodilation, and increased permeability
What is "rouleau formation" and what is its purpose?
The stacking of erythrocytes which slows down blood flow
What is it called when a leukocyte attaches to the endothelial wall?
Margination or pavementing
Why do leukocytes attach to endothelial walls?
In order to move out of the capillary
What is the movement called of a leukocyte moving out of the capillary into the surrounding tissue?
Diapedesis or emigration
What three things characterize the cellular response?
Chemotaxis of neut & leuk
Margination & emigration of neut & leuk
Phagocytosis of MO
What are the adhesion molecules that assist in margination of leukocytes?
Selectins, integrins, and PCAM-1
Name 5 local manifestations of inflammation
Erythema (d/t increased dilation), swelling (d/t exudate), warmth, pain, loss of function
What is exudate compromised of?
Cells, proteins, fluid
What determines the different types of exudates?
The concentrations of cells, proteins, or fluids
Increased fluid concentration, and is seen in mild acute inflammation because not as many cells were required for defence
Comprised of the main components and pus, WBC, and necrotic debris.
Seen in more severe injury.
Comprised of main components and RBCs, seen in severe injury
Sticky and mesh-like, composed of regular components plus fibrin strands
Development on mucous membrane - think strep throat
What are the two categories of inflammation?
Acute and chronic
C-Reacive Protein (CRP) is what?
A marker of inflammation, plays a role in non-specific defence by complement system
5 treatments for inflammation
Cold, elevation and pressure, heat, NSAIDs, and steroidal anti-inflammatory
What is the benefit of apply heat as a treatment for inflammation?
It stimulates phagocytosis
What are the 3 benefits of using steroidal anti-inflammatories?
Decrease permeability, decrease leukocyte and mast cell activity, decrease prostaglandin and histamine release.