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Flashcards in Inflammation Deck (32):
1

Inflammation is a response to what?

Injury

2

What are the two main goals of acute inflammation?

Localize agents of injury, and remove agents of injury

3

Acute inflammation is characterized as?

Short in duration and is the initial or early response

4

Chronic inflammation is characterized by?

Being longer in duration and problematic

5

Acute inflammation can be broken into which two categories?

Vascular response and cellular response

6

Which mediators release histamine and prostaglandin during the vascular response?

Leukocytes, mast cells and platelets

7

What results from histamine release?

Increased vascular permeability and increased dilation

8

What results from prostaglandins being released?

Increased permeability, increased dilation and mediation of pain

9

Why is vasoconstriction an immediate response during the vascular response of acute inflammation?

To minimize blood loss

10

What results from vasodilation when it occurs later during the vascular response phase of acute inflammation?

Increased blood flow resulting in redness and warmth, increased permeability and exudate begins to form

11

What causes swelling?

The shift of exudate into the tissues

12

What are the three key occurrences of the vascular response?

Vasoconstriction, vasodilation, and increased permeability

13

What is "rouleau formation" and what is its purpose?

The stacking of erythrocytes which slows down blood flow

14

What is it called when a leukocyte attaches to the endothelial wall?

Margination or pavementing

15

Why do leukocytes attach to endothelial walls?

In order to move out of the capillary

16

What is the movement called of a leukocyte moving out of the capillary into the surrounding tissue?

Diapedesis or emigration

17

What three things characterize the cellular response?

Chemotaxis of neut & leuk
Margination & emigration of neut & leuk
Phagocytosis of MO

18

What are the adhesion molecules that assist in margination of leukocytes?

Selectins, integrins, and PCAM-1

19

Name 5 local manifestations of inflammation

Erythema (d/t increased dilation), swelling (d/t exudate), warmth, pain, loss of function

20

What is exudate compromised of?

Cells, proteins, fluid

21

What determines the different types of exudates?

The concentrations of cells, proteins, or fluids

22

Serious exudate

Increased fluid concentration, and is seen in mild acute inflammation because not as many cells were required for defence

23

Purulent/Suppurative Exudate

Comprised of the main components and pus, WBC, and necrotic debris.
Seen in more severe injury.

24

Hemorrhagic exudate

Comprised of main components and RBCs, seen in severe injury

25

Fibrinous exudate

Sticky and mesh-like, composed of regular components plus fibrin strands

26

Membranous exudate

Development on mucous membrane - think strep throat

27

What are the two categories of inflammation?

Acute and chronic

28

C-Reacive Protein (CRP) is what?

A marker of inflammation, plays a role in non-specific defence by complement system

29

5 treatments for inflammation

Cold, elevation and pressure, heat, NSAIDs, and steroidal anti-inflammatory

30

What is the benefit of apply heat as a treatment for inflammation?

It stimulates phagocytosis

31

What are the 3 benefits of using steroidal anti-inflammatories?

Decrease permeability, decrease leukocyte and mast cell activity, decrease prostaglandin and histamine release.

32

Why is elevation and pressure used as a treatment for inflammation?

It decreases blood flow to the affected area which decreases exudate formation and therefore resulting in decreased swelling