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Flashcards in Compensated Heart Failure Deck (17):
1

What does compensation lead to?

Leads to decompensation leading to failure

2

What are the six mechanisms of compensation?

Ventricle dilation
Sympathetic nervous stimulation
RAAS
Naturietic peptides (ANP and BNP)
Endothelins
Cardiac hypertrophy and remodelling

3

True or false: compensated heart failure is clinically a symptomatic.

True

4

What is the mechanism of compensation: Ventricle dilation for compensated heart failure?

Increases end diastolic volume, which then increases muscle strength and preload which increases cardiac output

5

What are long term negative effects of the compensatory mechanism ventricle dilation?

Over stretch the heart and increase the oxygen requirement of the heart

6

What is the SNS mechanism of compensation for compensated heart failure?

It's aim is to increase the cardiac output via vasoconstriction, tachycardia, and increased contractility

7

What does the RAAS system result in as a compensation mechanism of heart failure?

Increases preload

8

What do naturetic peptides (ANP and BNP) do as a compensatory mechanism of HF?

Proteins that are secreted by the heart result in diureses and naturiuresis decreasing blood volume and preload

9

What do endothelins do as a mechanism of compensation for HF?

They result in vasoconstriction and result in proliferation of smooth muscle cells and hypertrophy of the heart

10

What does cardiac hypertrophy and remodelling do as a mechanism of compensation in HF?

An increased workload on the heart results in hypertrophy. Eventually a reduction in contractility occurs and as the heart requires more oxygen myocardial dysfunction occurs

11

What are manifestations of heart failure?

Effects of impaired pumping
Presentation of HF (decreased CO)
Compensatory mechanisms
SNS

12

How is HF diagnosed?

Risk factors
History
Physical assessment
Echo and ECG

13

What is the chronic treatment for HF?

Treat the symptoms, decrease risk and increase fx.

14

If the EF is less than 40% how do we treat HF?

ACE inhibitors and beta blockers

15

If EF is greater or equal to than 40%, how do we great HF?

Treat the treatment cause and ace inhibitor with or without beta blockers

16

What medication is used if EF is less than 40% on activity?

ARB, and then increase dose or add diuretics if the symptoms appear at rest

17

What is another possible tx for HF if the defect is repairable?

Surgery