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Flashcards in Anemia Deck (27):
1

What is the General patho of anemia

An abonor all RBC number or abnormal RBC structure and function leads to a decreased oxygen carrying capacity which leads to hypoxia

2

What are manifestations of anemia? Moderate ones? Severe ones?

Hypoxia
Moderate: dyspnea, palpitations, chronic fatigue
Severe: chronic exhaustion, excessive palpitation, profound weakness, dizziness, headache, sensitivity to cold

3

What are complications of anemia?

Metabolic acidosis

4

What types of anemia are there?

Iron deficiency
Vitamin b12 and folks acid deficiency
Pernicious anemia
Aplastic anemia
Hemolytic anemia
Hemorrhagic anemia
Sickle cell anemia

5

What causes iron deficiency anemia?

Dietary deficiency of iron

6

In iron deficiency anemia - why is oxygen unable to properly bind to oxygen?

There is inadequate iron intake which leads to impaired hemoglobin synthesis

7

Can a CBC be used to detect iron deficiency anemia?

No, because the number of RBC is normal it is just the structure that is abnormal

8

What is the treatment for iron deficiency anemia?

Treat the underlying cause for the deficiency
Iron PO 4-6 months
Oxygen

9

Hypoxia always leads to which symptom?

Dyspnea

10

How does a vitamin b12 and folic acid deficiency contribute to anemia?

It results in abnormal DNA synthesis and cell division which leads to inspired RBC, WBC and platelets

11

What sort of problem results in b12 and folic acid deficiency anemia in terms of the platelets?

Coagulation problems

12

What is the treatment for b12 and folic acid deficiency anemia?

Vitamin b12 and folic acid PO
Oxygen

13

What is the cause of pernicious anemia?

A damaged gastric mucosa leads to no intrinsic factor being made and intrinsic factor is necessary for b12 to be absorbed

14

What is the treatment for pernicious anemia?

High dose b12 PO is enough for passive absorption across the mucosa without any intrinsic factor
Or intramuscular b12 if neuro symptoms appear

15

What is so different of aplastic anemia from all other types of anemia?

There is no structural deficit as all components of hemoglobin are present

16

What causes aplastic anemia?

A bone marrow failure which affects all blood cells

17

What is the etiology of aplastic anemia?

1/3 autoimmune, radiation and chemotherapy
2/3 idiopathic

18

What is the treatment for aplastic anemia?

Treat the underlying cause if possible (if it's due to radiation withdraw radiation)
Transfusions for idiopathic kinda
Marrow transplant in more severe cases
Oxygen

19

What causes hemolytic anemia?

Premature or excessive hemolysis

20

What is the etiology of hemolytic anemia?

Either acquired (autoimmunity or chemotherapy drugs) or genetic (like thalassemia)

21

What is thalassemia?

A group of diseases that causes defect in synthesis of Hgb therefore RBCs get destroyed

22

What are manifestations of hemolytic anemia?

Jaundice (from excessive hemolysis and bilirubin concentrations that liver cannot handle)
Splenomegaly (because of excessive hemolysis)
Hepatomegaly (because of excessive hemolysis)

23

What is the etiology of anemia?

Defective erythropoiesis
Excessive hemolysis/premature hemolysis
Excessive loss (hemorrhage)

24

What are the treatments for hemolytic anemia? (6)

O2
Treat underlying cause
Transfusion
Steroid (dampen hemolysis)
Increase renal fx (precipitation of debris in rental tubule d/t hemolysis)
Splenectomy

25

What is an acute cause for hemorrhagic anemia?

Rapid blood loss

26

What are chronic causes of hemorrhagic anemia? (4)

Prolonged/heavy menses
Bleeding peptic ulcers
Cancers lesions in GI tract
Hemorrhoids

27

What is the treatment for hemorrhagic anemia?

Eliminate the cause