Flashcards in Anemia Deck (27):
What is the General patho of anemia
An abonor all RBC number or abnormal RBC structure and function leads to a decreased oxygen carrying capacity which leads to hypoxia
What are manifestations of anemia? Moderate ones? Severe ones?
Moderate: dyspnea, palpitations, chronic fatigue
Severe: chronic exhaustion, excessive palpitation, profound weakness, dizziness, headache, sensitivity to cold
What are complications of anemia?
What types of anemia are there?
Vitamin b12 and folks acid deficiency
Sickle cell anemia
What causes iron deficiency anemia?
Dietary deficiency of iron
In iron deficiency anemia - why is oxygen unable to properly bind to oxygen?
There is inadequate iron intake which leads to impaired hemoglobin synthesis
Can a CBC be used to detect iron deficiency anemia?
No, because the number of RBC is normal it is just the structure that is abnormal
What is the treatment for iron deficiency anemia?
Treat the underlying cause for the deficiency
Iron PO 4-6 months
Hypoxia always leads to which symptom?
How does a vitamin b12 and folic acid deficiency contribute to anemia?
It results in abnormal DNA synthesis and cell division which leads to inspired RBC, WBC and platelets
What sort of problem results in b12 and folic acid deficiency anemia in terms of the platelets?
What is the treatment for b12 and folic acid deficiency anemia?
Vitamin b12 and folic acid PO
What is the cause of pernicious anemia?
A damaged gastric mucosa leads to no intrinsic factor being made and intrinsic factor is necessary for b12 to be absorbed
What is the treatment for pernicious anemia?
High dose b12 PO is enough for passive absorption across the mucosa without any intrinsic factor
Or intramuscular b12 if neuro symptoms appear
What is so different of aplastic anemia from all other types of anemia?
There is no structural deficit as all components of hemoglobin are present
What causes aplastic anemia?
A bone marrow failure which affects all blood cells
What is the etiology of aplastic anemia?
1/3 autoimmune, radiation and chemotherapy
What is the treatment for aplastic anemia?
Treat the underlying cause if possible (if it's due to radiation withdraw radiation)
Transfusions for idiopathic kinda
Marrow transplant in more severe cases
What causes hemolytic anemia?
Premature or excessive hemolysis
What is the etiology of hemolytic anemia?
Either acquired (autoimmunity or chemotherapy drugs) or genetic (like thalassemia)
What is thalassemia?
A group of diseases that causes defect in synthesis of Hgb therefore RBCs get destroyed
What are manifestations of hemolytic anemia?
Jaundice (from excessive hemolysis and bilirubin concentrations that liver cannot handle)
Splenomegaly (because of excessive hemolysis)
Hepatomegaly (because of excessive hemolysis)
What is the etiology of anemia?
Excessive hemolysis/premature hemolysis
Excessive loss (hemorrhage)
What are the treatments for hemolytic anemia? (6)
Treat underlying cause
Steroid (dampen hemolysis)
Increase renal fx (precipitation of debris in rental tubule d/t hemolysis)
What is an acute cause for hemorrhagic anemia?
Rapid blood loss
What are chronic causes of hemorrhagic anemia? (4)
Bleeding peptic ulcers
Cancers lesions in GI tract