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Flashcards in Thyroid Gland Deck (23):
1

What hormones does the thyroid gland secrete?

Thyroxine (T4)
Triiodothyronine (T3)
Calcitonin

2

What is a goiter?

Enlarged thyroid gland that results from hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism

3

What is an endemic goiter, what does it result from?

Iodine deficiency -> decrease in T3 and T4 secretion -> compensatory mechanism leads to increase TSH secretion from anterior pituitary -> results in hyperplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid gland (due to excess stimulation)

4

What is a toxic goiter?

No toxins are present, but is due to hyperactivity of the thyroid gland and excess amounts of t3 and t4 is present

5

What is hyperthyroidism a result from?

Mostly autoimmunity

6

What is the most common form of hyperthyroidism?

Graves

7

Who does Graves' disease most commonly affect?

Young women

8

What are the hallmark presentations of graves?

Goiter, hyperthyroidism, exopthalmus

9

What is the patho of Graves' disease?

Autoimmunity targets TSH receptors on thyroid cells
TS Antibodies mimic TSH and bind to TSH receptor -> increase in t3 t4 secretion

10

What is thyroidtoxicosis (thyroid storm)?

It is the clinical presentation of hyperthyroidism and results from hyperthyroidism being untreated

11

What does the thyroid gland regulate?

Regulates metabolism, growth and development

12

What occurs during thyroidtoxicosis?

Lipid and protein catabolism
Increased metb heat -> compensatory mechanisms (flushed skin, perspiration) -> compensatory mechanisms max out -> intolerance to inc heat

13

What are manifestations of thyroidtoxicosis?

Excitable
Irritable
Insomnia
Anxiety

14

What happens to the cardiovascular system during theyroidtoxicosis and why?

Increase CO and HR meet increase o2 demands for waste removal

15

What does the respiratory system do when thyroidtoxicosis sets in?

Hyperventilation to expel co2

16

What is the treatment for thyroidtoxicosis?

1 of 3 options:
Anti thyroid drugs - suppress TH production
Radioiodine therapy - administer radioactive iodine binds to thyroid gland and emits radiation locally to destroy cells
Surgery for large goiters (can lead to hypothyroidism)

17

What are the three levels that hypothyroidism can occur at?

Thyroid (primary)
Pituitary (secondary)
Hypothalamus (tertiary)

18

In hypothyroidism, what level is it most common to have issues at?

The primary level, level of the thyroid

19

What is the main etiology of hypothyroidism? What occurs as a result?

Mainly due to radiation and surgery for hyperfx (istrogenic)

20

What are problems that result from hypothyroidism? (5)

Dec body temp
Dec co
Dec CNS fx
Weak muscle (due to dec ATP)
Increased weight due to dec basal metabolic rate

21

Why does the thyroid gland atrophy in Hashimoto's thyroiditis?

TSH receptors blocked and can't be stimulated

22

Tx for Hashimoto's thyroiditis?

T4 daily
But if endemic goiter - iodine to treat deficiency

23

Characteristics of Hashimoto's thyroiditis?

Autoimmune destruction of gland where antibodies act as a TSH receptor antagonist