Flashcards in Cell Injury Deck (19):
What basic problems can injury cause?
Deficiency, intoxication, trauma
What is an example of deficiency?
Lack of oxygen
What is an example of intoxication? And what results from intoxication?
Increased levels of toxins, leading to loss of function.
What is an example of trauma? What can trauma lead to?
Altered structure, loss of function.
What is free radical production?
Free radicals are produced as highly toxic chemicals. They target DNA by disrupting its bonds, and also target cell membranes and proteins.
What is hypoxia?
Affects ATP production due to lack of oxygen. Results in inhibition of function.
What is Ca+ imbalance?
Upon injury an influx of calcium and release of calcium from mitochondria occur. The increased [calcium] then inappropriately activates enzymes leading to cell damage.
In "Ca+ Imbalance" which enzymes are inappropriately activated?
Phospholipases which break down phospholipids in the cell membrane and proteases which break down proteins such as Hgb and antibodies.
What are the six cellular adaptations cells use to avoid injury or death?
Atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, and anaplasia.
What is atrophy?
The decrease in size of tissue mass, either as a result of a decrease in the number of cells or a decrease in the size of cells.
What is hypertrophy?
An increase in the size of tissue mass due to the increase in size of the cells.
What is hyperplasia?
An increase in the size of tissue mass due to an increase in the number of cells.
What is metaplasia?
Tissue replacement occurs when normal cells are exchanged for normal cells. This is not beneficial however because the tissue loses its normal function (pseudostratified epithelium --> stratified epithelium in RT)
What is dysplasia?
This is when the cells change arrangement, shape, or size and is often pre-cancerous. Increased division occurs.
What is anaplasia?
Cells are undifferentiated and this is almost always cancerous.
What are two type of cell death?
Necrosis and apoptosis
What is apoptosis?
Cell death that is programmed into the cell's genetics. Controlled death. Usually normal.
What is necrosis?
Premature death due to injury