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Flashcards in Basic Care & Comfort 1 Deck (19):
1

Which Non- Pharmacological method works best in children?

Which method works best in teens?
Which method works best in adults?

-children is distraction
-Teens is coping statements such as I can do this and the pain is not so bad.
-The method that works best in the Adults is whatever they want

2

Nutrition

Proteins= 4 calories per gram
Carbohydrates= 4 calories per gram
Fats= 9 cal per gram

3

Hydration- To know hydration you have to be able to properly assess __________.

Dehydration

4

What are the signs of dehydration?

Dry mucous membranes
Poor skin turgor
Thirsty
Low your output


Cardiac problems due to vasoconstriction which leads to weak thready pulse
Systolic blood pressure will drop
Orthostatic hypotension
Sinus tachycardia

Explain- blood pressure drops the heart rate goes up but the pulse will be very weak

5

In dehydration urine levels may drop below 30ml hour

In dehydration urine levels may drop below 30ml hour

6

Labs to watch in dehydration
USG: normal 1.003 to 1.030 increases
Urine color: dark yellow color

BUN/ creatine ratio: Normal ratio is 10:1 to 15:1. Ratios greater than 20:1 blood is not getting to the kidneys so it is either Dehydration or CHF

Labs to watch:
USG: normal 1.003 to 1.030 increases
Urine color: dark yellow color
BUN/ creatine ratio: Normal ratio is 10:1 to 15:1. Ratios greater than 20:1 blood is not getting to the kidneys so it is either Dehydration or CHF

7

What are the common cause of dehydration?

UTI
Diarrhea
fever
Nausea and; vomiting

8

Medicine that causes dehydration

Diuretics
Because they Increased the urine output and help your body get rid of water

9

ReMar’s Tip: Oral hydration can be just as effective as IV hydration if started earlyenough.
NCLEX TIPS:
1.
2.
3.

1. If the patient is vomiting it is OK to still proceed with clear liquids or oral hydration because they tend to be digested better start with

2. Start with Very small amounts of fluids . With about 5ml a sip no more

3.If oral hydration is not tolerated the a NG tube not a IV.because we want to use the least invasive method first

10

Bladder and ; Bowel Elimination
Urine

How much a day?
Odor?
Specific gravity
pH


1.016-1.022

Urine

How much a day? 1,000-2,000 ml per day
Odor? Ammonia is normal , if you smell musty think liver disease,

if it smells sweet think diabetes
Specific gravity :1.016-1.022
pH :4.6-8.0




11

Why are UTI more common in women than men?

Because uretha in a woman is much shorter than a man!

In woman it about 1.5 -2.5 inches
In males it's about 6-8 inches

12

Alteration in normal urine pattern matching

1.Anuria = no kidney function
2. Glycosuria =glucose in the urine
3. Hematuria=blood in the urine
4. Pyuria =Pus in urine
5. Enuresis =involuntary urination at night


13

NEED TO KNOW NCLEX SKILL: Collection of 24 hour urine

1. Start with an Empty Bladder Ask patient to void then throw away.
2. All urine must be kept in One Container or 1jug or one drainage bag if they have a Foley catheter.
3. If one urine sample missed then _ they must start the whole process over again
4. Keep urine on ice to help bacteria from Fermenting

14

Bowel
HANDLING NORMAL STOOL precautions?

Universal or Standard precautions

15

How Often They Go (BM)

infant: 3 to 6 times/day
Children & adults :go 1-2 times/day
Elderly : are prone to constipation , they to go every three days

16

Listen for bowel sounds in all four quadrants for __________ ____________

5 minutes
You are counting your bow sounds when you're looking for constipation

Less than 5 Bowel sounds within five minutes may indicate your pt is constipation

More than 30 bowel sounds within five minutes may indicate your patient has some problems with diarrhea

17

When doing any enemas or digital removal of impaction watch out for:

Vagus nerve stimulation

The Vagus nerve has the ability to drop the heart rate

18

Bowel Tests to know

1.Guaiac Test -looks for blood that cannot be seen in the stool
2.Culture and Sensitivity-done on stool, urine and; blood!
The culture is looking at which Microorganisms are growing in the stool! The sensitivity part looks it would anabiotic's are going to treat them the best

19

Non- Pharmacological Efforts

What are the 6 main one's that nurse do?



Non-Pharmacological means no medicine.

1. Distraction
2. Heat or cold therapy
3. Massage (never massage over bony provinces or legs)
4. Prayer
5. Music
6. Positioning

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