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Flashcards in BB 22- Japanese Quail Deck (81)
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1

What is the genus and species of the Japanese quail?

Coturnix japonica

2

What are they used for in research?

Developmental biology, endocrinology, aging, immunology, behavior studies, and human genetic disorders

3

What is their average life span in the wild? In captivity?

2-3 years
1.5-2.5 years

4

What order do they belong to?
What family do they belong to?

Galliformes
Phasianidae

5

What is there incubation time?

16 days

6

Quail interphase nuclei have nucleoli with compact ___________
that stains intensely with _________ _______.
Why does this matter?

Heterochromatin
Schiff's reagent

Quail cells can be distinguished from chicken cells in chimeric embryos.

7

The embryo is an amniote. What does that mean? What is the advantages for the study of an amniote

Early developmental pattern similar to humans.
Rapid reproductive maturation, adult are modest size, easily bred in lab, transgenic available, and fully sequenced genome.

8

What is Pompe's disease?

Glycogen storage disease characterized by myotonic dystrophy and acid maltase deficiency.

9

2 advantages of using quail to study aging

1. Hypothalamic systems exhibit neuroplasticity (aging males respond to hormone replacement therapy
2. Exhibit a bone dynamic physiology (validated model for hormone effects on osteoporosis and the role of vitamin d

10

T/F adults are sexually dimorphic
If T- how?

True
Plumage coloration

11

Treatment with _________ results in decreased bacterial counts, decreased foan production, and decreased fertility

Fluoroquinolones

12

What allows for prolonged sperm motility?

Cloacal gland secretes a white foamy material during copulation that can be retained by the female for more than 12 hours,

13

Greatest sensitivity of auditory range is?

1 - 4 kHz

14

Quail spend ____% of their time on ________ so should be provided with an opportunity to exhibit that behavior.

8
Foraging

15

T/F the provision of perches is required

F. Quail spend little time on elevated surfaces.

16

T/F Quail engage in several dust bath sessions daily

T- most often in the late afternoon.
If not provided, exhibit "vacuum dust bathing" where behaviors are still expressed.

17

T/F captive quail can be polygamous or monogamous

T

18

T/F Males are more receptive to females when introduced in the males cage

T

19

Avian sex chromosomes are ____ & _____

Z & W

20

Male sex chromosomes are ____ and females are _____

Males- ZZ
Females- ZW

21

For genotyping, the ________ a highly vascularized membrane in close contact with the pores of the eggshell to facilitate gas exchange, can be used to isolate genomic DNA.

Mesoderm-derived chorioallantoic membrane ( CAM)

22

What is inbreeding depression?

Reduces population fitness via decreased hatchability, viability, and fertility

23

What is the NPIP?

National Poultry Improvement Plan
Provides flock certification program to facilitate international transfer of eggs and birds.

24

Eggs must be stored at ______.
Storage at _____will cause embryonic cell death

Must store at 13 degrees Celsius

4 degree Celsius causes death

25

Name the 3 housing types

Poultry battery cages

Indoor floor pens

Semi-natural outdoor aviaries

26

Battery cages with sloped floors are good because they ________ ______ ______ but also result in an __________ ___________

Facilitate egg collection

Impoverished environment resulting in foot lesions, beak deformities, and bone fractures

27

Birds housed in deep litter floor pens demonstrate significantly (increased/decreased) cortisol levels and mortality

Increased

28

Minimum space recommendations for quail

0.25 square feet floor area/bird

29

Ideal temperatures for an aviary room is

22-25 degree Celsius

30

Cage height should be less than ______cm but at least ______ cm to allow for birds to have a normal posture when standing.

25 cm

20 cm

31

Water consumption varies with age:
2 week old chicks ingest _______
4 week old birds drink ________
7 week old birds consume _______-_______

23.3 ml/day

30 ml/day

40.9-62.1 ml/day

32

Starter diet has ______-______ crude protein and should be provided until birds are _____ weeks of age.

24%-26%

6-8 weeks

33

What are the 5 sites for blood sampling

Brachial, jugular, caudal tibial, external dorsal thoracic, heart

34

What can be used to identify chicks?

Size 4 plastic coil leg bands

35

What can be used to identify birds after 3 weeks of age?

Size 8 colored aluminum leg bands

36

What common analgesic has very low bioavailability and a very short half life in Japanese quail?

Ketoprofen (2mg/ml)

37

What types of inhalant euthanasia is acceptable?

Overdose of isoflurane or CO2. Chicks and embryos over 50% incubation require prolonged exposure to CO2

38

Are physical methods of euthanasia acceptable?

Cervical dislocation or decapitation are acceptable on the condition that personnel are trained and proficient.

39

What are the acceptable methods of euthanasia for eggs less than 50% incubation

Prolonged exposure to CO2

Cooling <4° C for 4hr

Freezing

40

T/ F reproduction is strongly influenced by photoperiod

T
Photoperiod influences sexual behavior, cloacal protrusion, and cloacal foam production

41

Japanese quail reach sexual maturation at ______ weeks of age

6-8 weeks of age

42

Female puberty is characterized by ______

The average age of the first egg laid

43

Male puberty is characterized by ________

Crowing and production of cloacal foam

44

What is the optimal male/female ratio for fertility

1:3

45

What male/female ratio results in a significant decrease in fertility

1:5

46

The average quail weighs

10-11 kg

47

Each hen produces ______ eggs every 2 weeka

10-12

48

Eggs should be stored in a refrigerator set to _______ and at _______ % relative humidity

13° Celsius

65%

Ideally stored with large end up or on their side

49

Ideal incubation temperature and humidity for optimal embryonic development

38 ° Celsius

50-65% relative humidity

50

On the _____ day of incubation, eggs should be transferred to an egg hatching incubator that is maintained at _______ with _______ relative humidity

16th

38° Celsius

70%

51

What is relative humidity?

The ratio of the current absolute humidity to the highest possible absolute humidity

52

How is relative humidity measured?

Hygrometer

53

Hatchlings typically weigh _____

6-8 grams

54

T/F Hatchlings do not need to be fed in the first 24 hours post hatch

T
No food or water because hatchlings obtain nutrition from their yolk sac that tretracted into the coelom in the days prior to hatch.

55

What should the temperature inside the brooder be for the first week post hatch

37° Celsius

56

How much and how often should the brooder temperature change post hatch

2-3° C every week for 3 weeks

57

At what age should birds Bo longer need an external heat source

4 weeks post hatch

58

How should eggs from an external source be sanitized

Quat ammonium (250 ppm) and water temperature of 43-49° C

59

What is the most frequent observed health concern in laboratory colonies

Trauma from conspecific pecking

60

What is the primary cancer in male quail

Sertoli cell tumors

61

What is the primary cancer of female quail

Leiomyoma

62

Common viruses

Quail bronchitis vius (QBV)

Newcastle virus

Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis

63

Quail Bronchitis Virus (QBV)

Type I avian adenovirus

Likely aerosol transmission

Rapid morbidity and mortality

Cs- decreased appetite, open mouth breathing, ruffled feathers, sneezing, nasal and ocular discharge, death.

Lesions- large basophilic intranuclear inclusions, necrotizing proliferative bronchitis, hepatic/spleen/cloacal bursa necrosis

64

Newcastle disease

Avian paramyxovirus I

Cs- subclinical to lethargy, ruffled feathers, dyspnea, torticollis, paralysis, and hemorrhagic diarrhea

Transmission horizontal via fecal- oral or inhalation of contaminated dust.

65

Equine Equine Encephalomyelitis

Arbovirus (Alphavirus, family Togaviridae)

Transmission via arthropod vectors (1° mosquito)

Cs- depression, tremor, paralysis, torticollis, death

Gross finding- duodenal catarrhal enteritis

66

Marek's disease

Lymphoproliferative disease caused by cell associated herpes virus.

Transmission via direct contact

Cs- lethargy, anorexia, wt loss, soft feces,lime-green urates

67

Quail pox

Avipoxviridae

Cs- wt loss, blepharitis, conjunctivitis, blindness, crusty papules at commisures, decreased egg production, impaired fertility

Species specific. Vaccine for other species does not conference protection

68

Avian Encephalomyelitis virus

Picornaviridae

Transmission- fecal-oral or vertical

Morbidity in chicks ranges from 40-60%

History lesions- encephalomyelitis, ganglionitis, hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles,

69

Reticulendotheliosis virus ( REV)

Retrovirus

Transmission via direct contact

Cs- immunosuppression, running syndrome, high mortality, acute reticulum neoplasia, t- or b-cell lymphoma

70

Ulcerative enteritis
"Quail disease"

Fatal enteric dz caused by Clostridium colinum

Young quail (4-12weeks of age) most susceptible

Transmission via fecal-oral

Cs- diarrhea, emaciation, sudden death

Gross- duodenal hemorrhagic enteritis with mucosal ulceration, path changes in liver and spleen

71

Salmonella enterica

2 serovars- Salmonella pullorum
Salmonella gallinarum

Transmission via fecal-oral or vertical

Cs- weakness, decreased appetite, white chalky material on vent, resp sign, joint swelling, anemia, death

Susceptible to common disinfectant

72

Campylobacteriosis

Acute gastroenteritis

Gram negative microaerophilic bacteria (C. jejuni or C. coli)

Horizontal and vertical transmission

73

What is the most common infectious bacterial disease in poultry?

Colibacillosis associated with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli

74

Pasteurella multocida

Causative agent of fowl cholera

Cs- fever, anorexia, oral discharge, diarrhea, dyspnea, cyanosis

Chronic dz- swollen joints, torticollis, resp impairment

75

What is the natural host for Bordetalla avium

The turkey

76

Coccidiosis

Eimeria spp.

Cs- diarrhea and wt loss

Sulfonamides are an effective treatment

77

Cryptosporidiosis

Caused by cryptosporidium spp.

Resp and intestinal involvement

Resistance to chlorine and most disinfectants

Killed by exposure to temp greater than 65° C

78

Aspergillosis

Aspergillus fumigatis

Morbidity and mortality in young birds

79

Candida albicans

Crop mycosis
Most common fungal infection of the digestive tract

80

Macrorhabdosis

Caused by infection of the proventriculus and ventriculus with the yeast, Macrorhabdosis ornithogaster

Cs- emaciation, prostration, anorexia, cachexia, and death

81

Onchroconis gallopava

Causative agent of fungal encephalitis

Cs- incoordination, torticollis, trmors, paralysis, death