Flashcards in BB 22- Japanese Quail Deck (81)
What is the genus and species of the Japanese quail?
What are they used for in research?
Developmental biology, endocrinology, aging, immunology, behavior studies, and human genetic disorders
What is their average life span in the wild? In captivity?
What order do they belong to?
What family do they belong to?
What is there incubation time?
Quail interphase nuclei have nucleoli with compact ___________
that stains intensely with _________ _______.
Why does this matter?
Quail cells can be distinguished from chicken cells in chimeric embryos.
The embryo is an amniote. What does that mean? What is the advantages for the study of an amniote
Early developmental pattern similar to humans.
Rapid reproductive maturation, adult are modest size, easily bred in lab, transgenic available, and fully sequenced genome.
What is Pompe's disease?
Glycogen storage disease characterized by myotonic dystrophy and acid maltase deficiency.
2 advantages of using quail to study aging
1. Hypothalamic systems exhibit neuroplasticity (aging males respond to hormone replacement therapy
2. Exhibit a bone dynamic physiology (validated model for hormone effects on osteoporosis and the role of vitamin d
T/F adults are sexually dimorphic
If T- how?
Treatment with _________ results in decreased bacterial counts, decreased foan production, and decreased fertility
What allows for prolonged sperm motility?
Cloacal gland secretes a white foamy material during copulation that can be retained by the female for more than 12 hours,
Greatest sensitivity of auditory range is?
1 - 4 kHz
Quail spend ____% of their time on ________ so should be provided with an opportunity to exhibit that behavior.
T/F the provision of perches is required
F. Quail spend little time on elevated surfaces.
T/F Quail engage in several dust bath sessions daily
T- most often in the late afternoon.
If not provided, exhibit "vacuum dust bathing" where behaviors are still expressed.
T/F captive quail can be polygamous or monogamous
T/F Males are more receptive to females when introduced in the males cage
Avian sex chromosomes are ____ & _____
Z & W
Male sex chromosomes are ____ and females are _____
For genotyping, the ________ a highly vascularized membrane in close contact with the pores of the eggshell to facilitate gas exchange, can be used to isolate genomic DNA.
Mesoderm-derived chorioallantoic membrane ( CAM)
What is inbreeding depression?
Reduces population fitness via decreased hatchability, viability, and fertility
What is the NPIP?
National Poultry Improvement Plan
Provides flock certification program to facilitate international transfer of eggs and birds.
Eggs must be stored at ______.
Storage at _____will cause embryonic cell death
Must store at 13 degrees Celsius
4 degree Celsius causes death
Name the 3 housing types
Poultry battery cages
Indoor floor pens
Semi-natural outdoor aviaries
Battery cages with sloped floors are good because they ________ ______ ______ but also result in an __________ ___________
Facilitate egg collection
Impoverished environment resulting in foot lesions, beak deformities, and bone fractures
Birds housed in deep litter floor pens demonstrate significantly (increased/decreased) cortisol levels and mortality
Minimum space recommendations for quail
0.25 square feet floor area/bird
Ideal temperatures for an aviary room is
22-25 degree Celsius
Cage height should be less than ______cm but at least ______ cm to allow for birds to have a normal posture when standing.
Water consumption varies with age:
2 week old chicks ingest _______
4 week old birds drink ________
7 week old birds consume _______-_______
Starter diet has ______-______ crude protein and should be provided until birds are _____ weeks of age.
What are the 5 sites for blood sampling
Brachial, jugular, caudal tibial, external dorsal thoracic, heart
What can be used to identify chicks?
Size 4 plastic coil leg bands
What can be used to identify birds after 3 weeks of age?
Size 8 colored aluminum leg bands
What common analgesic has very low bioavailability and a very short half life in Japanese quail?
What types of inhalant euthanasia is acceptable?
Overdose of isoflurane or CO2. Chicks and embryos over 50% incubation require prolonged exposure to CO2
Are physical methods of euthanasia acceptable?
Cervical dislocation or decapitation are acceptable on the condition that personnel are trained and proficient.
What are the acceptable methods of euthanasia for eggs less than 50% incubation
Prolonged exposure to CO2
Cooling <4° C for 4hr
T/ F reproduction is strongly influenced by photoperiod
Photoperiod influences sexual behavior, cloacal protrusion, and cloacal foam production
Japanese quail reach sexual maturation at ______ weeks of age
6-8 weeks of age
Female puberty is characterized by ______
The average age of the first egg laid
Male puberty is characterized by ________
Crowing and production of cloacal foam
What is the optimal male/female ratio for fertility
What male/female ratio results in a significant decrease in fertility
The average quail weighs
Each hen produces ______ eggs every 2 weeka
Eggs should be stored in a refrigerator set to _______ and at _______ % relative humidity
Ideally stored with large end up or on their side
Ideal incubation temperature and humidity for optimal embryonic development
38 ° Celsius
50-65% relative humidity
On the _____ day of incubation, eggs should be transferred to an egg hatching incubator that is maintained at _______ with _______ relative humidity
What is relative humidity?
The ratio of the current absolute humidity to the highest possible absolute humidity
How is relative humidity measured?
Hatchlings typically weigh _____
T/F Hatchlings do not need to be fed in the first 24 hours post hatch
No food or water because hatchlings obtain nutrition from their yolk sac that tretracted into the coelom in the days prior to hatch.
What should the temperature inside the brooder be for the first week post hatch
How much and how often should the brooder temperature change post hatch
2-3° C every week for 3 weeks
At what age should birds Bo longer need an external heat source
4 weeks post hatch
How should eggs from an external source be sanitized
Quat ammonium (250 ppm) and water temperature of 43-49° C
What is the most frequent observed health concern in laboratory colonies
Trauma from conspecific pecking
What is the primary cancer in male quail
Sertoli cell tumors
What is the primary cancer of female quail
Quail bronchitis vius (QBV)
Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis
Quail Bronchitis Virus (QBV)
Type I avian adenovirus
Likely aerosol transmission
Rapid morbidity and mortality
Cs- decreased appetite, open mouth breathing, ruffled feathers, sneezing, nasal and ocular discharge, death.
Lesions- large basophilic intranuclear inclusions, necrotizing proliferative bronchitis, hepatic/spleen/cloacal bursa necrosis
Avian paramyxovirus I
Cs- subclinical to lethargy, ruffled feathers, dyspnea, torticollis, paralysis, and hemorrhagic diarrhea
Transmission horizontal via fecal- oral or inhalation of contaminated dust.
Equine Equine Encephalomyelitis
Arbovirus (Alphavirus, family Togaviridae)
Transmission via arthropod vectors (1° mosquito)
Cs- depression, tremor, paralysis, torticollis, death
Gross finding- duodenal catarrhal enteritis
Lymphoproliferative disease caused by cell associated herpes virus.
Transmission via direct contact
Cs- lethargy, anorexia, wt loss, soft feces,lime-green urates
Cs- wt loss, blepharitis, conjunctivitis, blindness, crusty papules at commisures, decreased egg production, impaired fertility
Species specific. Vaccine for other species does not conference protection
Avian Encephalomyelitis virus
Transmission- fecal-oral or vertical
Morbidity in chicks ranges from 40-60%
History lesions- encephalomyelitis, ganglionitis, hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles,
Reticulendotheliosis virus ( REV)
Transmission via direct contact
Cs- immunosuppression, running syndrome, high mortality, acute reticulum neoplasia, t- or b-cell lymphoma
Fatal enteric dz caused by Clostridium colinum
Young quail (4-12weeks of age) most susceptible
Transmission via fecal-oral
Cs- diarrhea, emaciation, sudden death
Gross- duodenal hemorrhagic enteritis with mucosal ulceration, path changes in liver and spleen
2 serovars- Salmonella pullorum
Transmission via fecal-oral or vertical
Cs- weakness, decreased appetite, white chalky material on vent, resp sign, joint swelling, anemia, death
Susceptible to common disinfectant
Gram negative microaerophilic bacteria (C. jejuni or C. coli)
Horizontal and vertical transmission
What is the most common infectious bacterial disease in poultry?
Colibacillosis associated with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli
Causative agent of fowl cholera
Cs- fever, anorexia, oral discharge, diarrhea, dyspnea, cyanosis
Chronic dz- swollen joints, torticollis, resp impairment
What is the natural host for Bordetalla avium
Cs- diarrhea and wt loss
Sulfonamides are an effective treatment
Caused by cryptosporidium spp.
Resp and intestinal involvement
Resistance to chlorine and most disinfectants
Killed by exposure to temp greater than 65° C
Morbidity and mortality in young birds
Most common fungal infection of the digestive tract
Caused by infection of the proventriculus and ventriculus with the yeast, Macrorhabdosis ornithogaster
Cs- emaciation, prostration, anorexia, cachexia, and death