Flashcards in Facility Design and Management Deck (78)
measures taken to detect, prevent, contain, and eradicate adventitious infections
define programming in terms of facility design
decision-making phase that defines the scope of the building project
what is in the program document in terms of facility design
describing in detail what research will be housed in the facility and its support requirements. ie space allocation summary, list of all square footage requirements
what are the pros and cons of a multi corridor system vs a single corridor system
multi cooridor system allows for better separation of clean and soiled materials but requires more space.
what are 4 types of animal housing areas?
conventional, quarantine, biocontainment, barrier
typical modular rodent room sizes
11ft x 22ft
what equipment should be fixed in an animal holding room?
sink, no casework, as open and flexible as possible
refers to facilities and management practices designes to isolate animals from infectious agents
levels of barrier
typically at the cage level. if using open top caging, may be at room level, isolators
standard rodent cage capacity of rooms
500-800 cages equates to 250-400 sq ft
most common cubicle size
4ft deep x 6 ft wide
benefits of cubicles
allows greater separation of animals by pecies, source, microbiological status, project, and experimental hazards.
air distribution in cubicle set up
asile is positive to cubicle. air from cubicle enters when door open and can then be forced into other cubicles when pressure is restored.
NHPs are housed under what biohazard status
special componenets of NHP housing
entry vestibule, lights and fixtures designed and secured so that animals free in the room cannot damage them, trough drain system, hose bibs
slope of floor for ideal drainage
3/16in per foot from crown to floor trough. slope in trough 1/4in per foot to drain
size of drain
4in minimum, should be 6in if will be washing down waste
ratio of support space to animal housing space
30:70 to 70:30
engineering features required when dealing with hazardous materials
physical isolation of animals and waste, room surfaces are monolithic, sealed, and easily sanitized, use of BSCs or chemical hood, increased room air exchange rates to dilute contaminants, directional airflow, room pressure differentials
chemical hoods provide protection for what? personnel, product, neither, both?
BSC Class II Type B2 provide protection for what? personnel, product, neither, both?
how long should caracaases and waste be allowed to decay before disposal into nonradioactive waste streams
10 half lives
removal of organic and nonorganic debris adhering to surfaces
reduces but does not eliminate microorganisms
combination of cleaning and disinfection
eliminates all life forms
preferred method of sanitiation of cages and equipment
mechanical washers and water at temps in excess of 180F
describe the set up of a constant volume reheat type of HVAC system
CVR system draws in 100% fresh air, then filter, heat or cool, and humidify before distributing it within the facility. Conditioned air delivered to individual rooms at a constant temperature and humidity is then reheated to the desired temperature at the room level based on settings of rooms thermostat
describe the set up of a variable air volume system?
ventilation rates can be tailored to maintain desired environmental conditions
final particulate filters found on most vivarium air handles filter what?
to 85-95% dust spot efficiency
Filtering ability of HEPA filter
99.97% of 0.3um diameter particles
what systems are essential to have on emergency power?
ventilated caging, aquatic life support, environmental monitoring and security systems
common air pressure differentials used
0.02-0.08 inches of water column
air velocities in a room should not exceed what level, especially when not using filter top caging?
set point for rodent handling rooms?
which of the environmental parameters is the most challenging to maintain? the most important to maintain?
acceptable daily temperature change
plus or minus 2F
what is the intracage light intensity differential between cages at the top of the rack and those at the bottom?
80 fold difference
recommendation for light intensity at cage level
between 130-325 lux.
recommended max noise in animal facilities
at a minimum, which parameters should be continuously monitored
temperature and light periodicity
in the event of a thermostat or heating system malfunction, the reheat coil should....
fail closed to prevent room overheating
what is the relationship between MaE RH and ammonia
Higher MaE RH = higher MiE RH = earlier ammonia is detectable after cage change.
why is ammonia not a concern when housing axenic or gnotobiotic animals?
flora is devoid of urease producing bacteria
what is the standard acceptable level for MiE ammonia concentration
there is none but no more than 25ppm is the performance standard.
benefits of static MI cages
good for containment of disease and hazards
cons of static MI cages
microenvironment begins to deterioriate rapidly, requiring more frequent cage changes
benefits of MI
better microenvironment less frequent cage changes, variability in MiE air quality is reduced or eliminated when compared to static cages, able to increase housing capacity- take up less space than static caging
types of systems of IVCs for air exchange
perimeter capture, direct, indirect, combination
ideal intracage ventilation rate
60ACH with cage change q 14 days
air speed at locations that cage occupants would encounter
less than 50 linear feet per minute
cons of IVCs
if high velocity, can lead to chilling, pheromone dilution esp with breeding mice
additional condsiderations with IVC equipment
heat load, exhaust release, noise generation, power requirements and failure, vibration, blower maintenance and calibration, and sanitation
sanitation frequency for IVC
most common type of mass air displacement device found in a lab animal facility
cage change station or isolator
what type of air is supplied when using a MAD
Class 100 air, air that contains no more than 100 (0.5um particles or larger per cubic foot of air.
Class 1 stations, use and protection provided?
bedding dump stations, personnel protection only
Class II Type A, exhaust is handled how?
air is recirculated
Class II Type B, exhaust is handled how?
hard ducted to the buildings exhaust.
feed comes in to forms
pelleted and extruded
natural diets come in two forms
open and closed
define a closed diet
individual components of the diet are not provided but a guaranteed analysis is
what is an open formula diet
manufactured in accordance with an established known ingredient formulation
define purified diet
formulated from refined ingredients
define chemically defined diets
formulated from chemically pure compounds
when might you use a purified or chemically defined diet and what is one of the main drawbacks?
when you are altering the nutritional content or need to alter a specific dietary component. typically less palatable than natural ingredient diets.
ways to sterilize food
autoclave and gamma irridiation
define certified feeds
analyzed and certified to contain not more than the established maximum level of environmental contaminants, including heavy metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons, organoposphates, aflatoxins.
storage conditions for natural ingredient diets
70C 50% humidity
ways to disinfect large quantities of water, ie aquatic systems
UV or ozone
additives for rodent drinking water
hydrochloric acid, chlorine
ideal pH for using acidification for purification
ideal ppm of chlorine for hyperchlorination for purification
0.5-10ppm (6-8 ideal but should be less than 10)
the bottom shelf of rodent racks should be no less than ____ off the floor
what are the four plastics used for rodent caging
polycarbonate, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethylene
what plastic for rodent caging is the most durable
what plastic for rodent caging is the most cost effective