Flashcards in Occ Health Guidelines Deck (123)
What does NRC stand for?
National Research Council
What organization does the NRC operate?
National Academy of Engineering
National Academy of Sciences
List 4 major NRC reports pertaining to guidance in environmental health and safety of lab workers
Prudent practices for handling hazardous chemicals in the laboratory
2) Prudent practices for sidposal of chemicals from laboratories
3) Biosafety in the laboratory: Prudent practices for the handling and disposal of infectious materials
4) Prudent practices in the laboratory: handling and disposing of chemicals
What does IRAC stand for?
Interagency Research Animal Committee
What does PRIM&R stand for?
Public Responsibility in Medicine and REsearch
What does ARENA stand for?
Applied Research Ethics National Association
What does OSHA stand for?
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
What does EPA stand for?
Environmental Protection Agency
What are the basic concepts that determine the effectiveness of an Occ HEalth program?
Kowing the hazard
Avoiding and controlling exposures
Training and education
Rules and guidelines
Record keeping and monitoring
Commitment and Coordination
What are the 5 institutional functions needed for an OHS program?
Animal care and use
environmental health and safety
administration and management
What % of people with pre-existing allergies might develop animal allergies?
List key elements of OHS program?
Facilit design and operation
Education and training
List factors to be considered in performing a risk assessment of employees with animal contact?
Physical and biological hazards from animal
Hazardous properties of agents used in protocol
Occupational health history of an employee doing similar work
Who is ultimately responsible for an institutions OHS program?
senior official of an institution
What is the objective of an OHS program?
To minimize risks of occupational injury or illness by controlling or eliminating hazards in the workplace
NRC does not recommend serum collection/storage as standard components of an OHS program. T/F
NRC does recommend a physical exam as the principal surveillance tool for periodic health evaluations.
False, recommends a careful history based on knowledge of workplace risks. PE should be done when symptoms of work place illness become evident
What is the goal of an OHS program? What should the focus of the program be?
Goal- to prevent occupational injury and illness
Focus- control hazards and reduction of risk as opposed to merely satisfying regulations
Who is responsible/accountable for design of OHS program? Who has ultimate responsibility?
Institution has ultimate responsibility
also, program managers, program implementors, employees
What are the responsibilities of the institution?
Understand the issues
establish support institutional policies
authority to provide resources
bring together program managers and implementors
Program managers can include whom?
animal-facility managers or supervisors
research directors and scientists
human resources and finance personnel
What is a safety program implementors key responsibility? Other responsibilities?
Training is key responsibility. other: providing appropriate PPE, providing appropriate facilities, ensuring compliance of subordinate staff with established procedures and practices
Institutions typically choose to address the exposures that are causing the greatetst costs. T/F
List three types of control/prevention strategies for controlling OHS risks (occupational illness/injury)
primary prevention- control/eliminate hazards
secondary prevention- premorbid case detection
tertiary prevention- case finding and disease management
Who is responsible for identification of hazards in the workplace?
What does MSDS stand for?
Material Safety Data Sheets
What does NIOSH stand for?
National Institue for Occupational Safety and Health
Define risk vs hazard
risk- measure of the likelihood of a consequence
hazard- inherent danger in a material or system
What is the principal objective of an OHS program?
To reduce to an acceptable level the risk associated with using material or systems that might have inherent danger
What are some institutional sources about worker health and safety?
Workers compensation ins
first report of illness/injury
OSHA 200 log
first aid log
occupational health log
adverse reaction reports
Define worker compensation
insurance system maintained by an institution to cover the medical costs and replace lost wages of workers with work related illness/injury
What is Supplementary Data System (SDS)?
Fed Bureau of Labor Statistics receives data from 35 states categorizing and reporting injuries and illnesses that qualify for worker comp.
What is the OSHA 200 log and who requires this
most institutions are required by law to maintain a log of work-related illness/injury, US dept of labor
Define injury vs ilness
Injuries- incidents that are instantaneous (bite, kick, needlestikc)
Illness- conditions arising from noninstantaneous events (carpal-tunnel syndrome, animal allergies, dermatitis)
When is an injury recordable?
It is results in: death, loss of consciousness, lost work time, placement on restricted duty, treatment other than first aid
What is required to be prepared and kept by employeers for each OSHA 200 log entry?
Supplementary record of occupational illness or injury (OSHA form 101)
List some government agencies that could be used as sources of info for developing a safety program and ID potential hazards.
NIOSH, OSHA, CDC, NIH, NADC, ARS, APHIS
List 3 most common species involved with bites among general population
Dogs, cats, rodents
Give some examples of diseases transmitted through animal bites
Rabies, CHV-1, hantavirus, cat-scratch fever, tularemia, rat bite feer, brucellosis, orf
What does NFPA stand for?
National Fire Protection Association
List fire classifications for various materials
Class A (Cloth, wood, paper)
Class B (flammable gasses and liquids)
Class C (electric equipment)
Class D (comubstable metals)
How are class B liquids further defined?
according to flash point (lowest temperature at which liquid will produce vapor sufficient to propagate flame
flammable liquids have flash point less than 100
combustable liquds have flash point between 100-200
List classification of UV radiation by wavelength
UVA 320-400nm (black light)
UVB 280-320nm (erythemal region)
UVC 100-280nm (germicidal region)
Compressed gas cylinders should be secured at all times. T/F
What is a potential hazard of UV radiation in the presense of chlorinated solvents?
UV radiation reacts with vapors of chlorinated solvents to produce phosgene a potential lung irritant
What precautions must employees take if working in the presence of UV radiation?
Eye and skin should be protected against UV exposure
What does "LASER" stand for?
light amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation
What does ANSI stand for?
American national standards institute
list classification of lasers. What is this classification based on?
Class 1: does not emit hazardous level of radiation when operating normally
Class 2: Low-power, not enough power to injure accidentally but can cause injury if beam viewed for extended periods of time
Class 3a: High power, can cause injury if beam concentrated with viewing device.
Class 3b: Produce injury if viewed directly, beam also dangerous if reflected off a mirror like surface
Class IV: Class 3 + fire hazard
Classification is based on power level and hazard potential
What is the major hazard associated with lazers?
major hazard is related to beam (burns, eye damage, lacerations, fires) also aerosols, fumes, toxic gases, electric shock
What does NSC stand for?
National Safety Council
What is the criteria for classifying radiation as ionizing?
Radiation must have enough energy to remove electrons from atoms to create ions.
Define and list types of particulate radiation
Composed of particles that are of atomic origin. alpha
(2 protons and 2 neutrons) and beta particles (electrons or positrons)
define and list types of nonparticulate radiation
electromagnetic radiation with very short wavelength, composed of photons of energy and can penetrate matter (gamma and x-rays)
Through what routes can radiation be hazardous? What are the 2 types of hazards?
Routes= inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, proximity
Hazards= internal, external
What agency controls the use of radioisotopes?
US Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Name some common types of hazards presented by machinery.
in running nip points, crush points, pinch points, noise
How is chronic noise-induced hearing loss characterized?
Declining sensitivity to frequencies above 2,000 Hz
What are OSHA limits on "noise" exposure for employees?
limits noise exposure to 90 decibels measured on the A scale of standard sound level meter at slow response averaged over an 8h workshift
list some negative effects of noise
make speech difficult
cause loss of concentration
Ultrasonography is not covered by the OSHA noise standards. T/F
False, if frequency is less than 20 kHz, it is covered
Employee knowledge of chemical hazards and protective measures has been increased due to what 2 OSHA health and safety standards?
hazard communication standard, occupational exposure to hazardous chemical in laboratories
Name some hazardous properties of chemicals
flammability, corrosiveness, reactivity, explosivity, toxicity
what are the most common chemical injuries associated with animal care and use?
burns and irritation of the skin, allergic response in sensitized people
Hazards associated with experimental protocols are influenced by what 2 principal factors?
dangerous qualities of the experimental agents
complexity or type of experimental operations
What are the recommended sequences of stages that sould be considered in planning a safe experiment
evaluating hazards and assessing risks
management of chemicals
working with chemiclas
working with equipment
disposal of chemicals
government regulations of lab
Transmission of zoonotic disease in an animal facility that is not involved with infectious disease is rare. T/F
What does SALS stand for?
Subcommittee on Arbovirus Laboratory Safety
What factors go into the selection of an appropriate biosafety level? Specifically, what characteristics of the infectious agent?
severity of disease, mode of transmission, availability of protective immunization or effective therapy, relative risk of exposure created by manipulation in handling the agent and caring for infected animals
List and describe animal biosafety levels
ABSL1: basic level of protection for well characterized agents not known to cause disease in healthy humans
ABSL2: handles broad spectrum of moderate risk agents that cause disease in humans by ingestion, percutaneous or mucous membrane exposure
ABSL3: Agents that present risk of respiratory transmission, can cause serious and potentially lethal infection
ABSL4: Exotic agents posing high individual risk of life threatening disease by aerosol route and for which no treatment is available
What estimated % of all lab workers eventually develop occupational related asthma?
Allergy is most often manifested by cough, wheezing, and shortness of breath when exposed to lab animals. T/F
False, most often manifested by nasal symptoms, itchy eyes and rashes
List risk groups for workers exposed to lab animals based on history of allergic disease and sensitization to animal proteins
Normal- no evidence of allergic disease
Atopic- pre existing allergic disease
Asymptomatic- IgE abs to allergenic animal proteins
Symptomatic- Clinical symptoms on exposure to allergenic animal proteins
In almost all asthmatic people with lab animal allergy, and shortness of breath when exposed to lab animals. T/F
Which of the following are examples of anaphylactic reactions?
a. diffuse itching, hives, swelling of face, lips, tongue
b. difficulty breathing due to laryngeal edema
c. asthma with wheezing
d. loss of consciousness due to shock
f. all of the above
allergic reactions are mediated by what class of immunoglobulins?
What is the most common route of exposure in lab animal allergy?
Mast cells are most abundant in what sites?
Respiratory tract, GI tract, Skin
An autosomal dominant trait with variable expression linked to genetic markerson Ch5 has been linked to people more likely to develop IgE abs to allergins
List types of allergic reactions to lab animal allergens
Contact urticarial, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma, anapylaxis
What are the major sources of rat allergen exposure?
urine and saliva
Name a major rat urine allergen.
Name a major mouse allergen
Urine samples from mice contain 100x more Mus m 1 than males. T/F
Female mice excrete 4x more Mus m than males. T/F
What are the sources of allergens from guinea pigs? What is the major source?
Dander, fur, saliva, urine. Urine=major
Sources of allergens from rabbits? Which are major and which are minor?
Major glycoprotein allergen in fur. Minor allergenic components in saliva and urine.
Allergy to cats might predispose workers to the development of allergy to lab animals. T/F
Name the major cat allergen. Where is it produced?
Protein Fel d1. produced in sebaceous glands of skin and saliva
Which of the following is false?
a. Fel d1 is found in all cats
b. cross reactivity occurs throughout all species of cats
c. All cats shed similar amounts of allergen
d. Male cats might shed more than female cats
e. some people can become sensitized to cat albumin
Which of the following does not decrease concentrations of cat alerrgen in the air?
a. use filtered vacuum cleaner
b. remove carpeting
c. run high efficiency air cleaner
d. wash the cat
e. increase ventilation rate
Name the dog allergen and source of exposure.
Can f1, dog albumin, saliva, hair, skin
Sensitization to primates is common. T/F
Name sources of cattle allergens
dander and urine
Horses constitute a highly potent source of allergens. T/F
What are sources of horse allergens?
Daner, skin scrapings, albumin
There is no evidence of cross sensitivity between deer and horse allergens. T/F
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to exposure to birds is due to what type of Ab?
precipitating IgG abs to the protein in question
List some ways to detect the presence of specific IgE Abs in humans
Airborne -allergen load in an animal room depends on what?
Rate of production, rate of removal, relative humidity
Surgical disposable masks are effective in minimizing sensitization to lab animal allergens. T/F
Recommended PPE for symptomatic allergic workers? Requirements to use these PPE's
At a minimum, use of dust mist respirator certified by NIOSH, filtered airhood device. Employees using respirators will need respiratory fit testing and medical clearance
What does AAAAI stand for?
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
The use of immunotherapy as a means to protect workers from further symptoms has not been fully established. T/F
Transmission of zoonotic diseases in the laboratory animal environment is uncommon. T/F
Vigilance for zoonoses is an important aspect of all ___________ transplantations.
B- virus in macaques causes a clinical disease similar to human
d. herpes simplex
An ocular complication of B virus infection in macaques is____________.
Latency of the B virus is seen in the ganglia of sensory or motor (choose one) nerves serving the region in which the virus was introduced.
NAme three stressors that can induce B virus shedding from peripheral sites.
change in housing
What period in the macaque life cycle shows the highest incidence of B virus infection
c. old age
Although several species of New world and old world monkeys are known to succumb to fatal B virus infection, only macaques and chimpanzees are known to harbor B virus naturally. T/F
Fomite, as well as human to human, transmission has occurred with B virus infections in humans. T/F
The incubation period between initial exposure and onset of clinical signs ranges from
a. 1-2 months
b. 1-7 days
c.2-days to 1 month
d. 3-4 weeks
Name one of two antiviral therapeutics used if a person has a history and symptoms consistent with B virus infection.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever is caused by a _________ (type of virus).
What was the name of the Ebola like filovirus that cam from macaques imported into the united states from the Philippines during 1989?
Name two important modes of transmission for Ebola that do not involve human to animal contact
contact with blood products
vcontact with fomites
Marburg virus diseases have been recognized on only ___ occasions.
Hantavirus is caused by a ____________ (type of virus)
Reservoirs for hantavirus are
There is epidemiological evidence that __________ can become infected through rodent contace and potentially serve as a reservoir.