Flashcards in Bio 141 Exam 1 Deck (151):
What is the membrane made of?
Space between organs
What does the nucleus contain
What does DNA contain
Instructions to make proteins
Movement of substance from high concentration to low.
Rough ER location and function
Located near nucleus and is involved in shaping proteins
Second step in protein shaping after rough ER
ATP producer powerhouse babay!
Movable storage sacks
The movement of water from an area with more freeh20 molecules to less
movement of water toward a SALTIER solution
What must substances be to dissolve in water?>
Dissolve in water
The liquid in which the solute dissolves
Can h20 molecules in a hydration sphere move?
Yes, but with more difficulty than free h2o molecules
Equal concentration of solutes in extra and intra
Lower solute outside cell
Water moves into cell and SWELLS
96% of matter in organisms are these 4 elements:
Non Polar hydrophilic or phobic
Polar hydrophilic or phobic
What is the reference point for isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic?
The extracellular fluid is compared to the intra (STANDARD)
How an external solution will affect the inside of a cell
isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic
What does active transport require?
energy in the form of ATP
What does active transport move against
A concentration gradient
What does facilitated diffusion require?
a concentration gradient, NOT ATP
Where does the Na and K go when pumped?
Na goes outside
K goes inside
Do sodium potassium pumps require ATP
Yes, ions are moved against the concentration gradient
Separation of charged particles
The flow of charged particles
Anything that slows current
Resting Membrane Potential
Ions in equilibrium inside and outside of the cell
What is the average RMP/RMV?
What does the SOMA contain
What are the extensions that come off of the Soma called??
What do dendrites do?
Increase the surface area to accommodate for more protein passageways
Small area between two dendrites
The long extenstion of the soma
Where di voltage changes occur?
The triggher zone/axon hillock
What is the membrane sheath that acts as insulation
What is a common small chemical messenger that acts as a key to proteins in membranes
Membrane voltage increases from resting membrance potential
Small changes in membrane voltage that result in no tangible way
What ion is entering the cell during depolarization?
Membrane voltage decreasing from RMV
Voltage returning back to Resting Membrane Potential
How do ligands affect voltage gated channels?
They bring the voltage up to threshold by allowing ions in
Where are the majority of ligand gated channels located?
Dendrites coming off of the soma
Where are the majority of voltage gated channels located?
The Axon Hillock
What goes into voltage gated channels?
What goes out of voltage gated channels?
What flows more easily through voltage gated channels?
Na (Automatic door)
What flows more difficultly through voltage gated channels?
K (Manual Door)
What happens to the flow of K once a cell begins to repolarize?
The Na doors close and allow K to flow more freely outward to enhance repolarization
What causes the slight hyperpolarization that occurs when a cell is returning back to RMV?
The K doors take a bit too long to close
What forms the nucleus of an atom?
Protons and neutrons
A version of at atom with a different amount of protons and neutrons
Do neutrons affect AM?
What is an ion?
Any molecule that has charge
What are molecules?
Atoms bound together
When atoms bond by shared electrons
How does a polar covalent bond work?
The electrons shared by two atoms are shared unequally
What kind of polar covalent bond does water have?
The hydrogen is positive and the O is negative
What happens when electrons are shared equally between 2 atoms?
Non-polar covalent bond
When a positive atom is attracted to a negative ion
Which is stronger: Covalent or ionic bond?
What do hydrogen bonds do?
The weakly bond neighboring molecules
Do hydrogen bonds create molecules?
Any molecule that becomes an ion when mixed with water
What do you call the water shell that forms around an ion or molecule?
What kind of substances dissolvein water?
Why do oils not dissolve in water?
They are not charged and never form a hydration sphere
What is an electrolyte that releases a hydrogen ion in water?
What is an electrolyte that that binds a hydrogen molecule in water?
ph of hydrocholric acid
ph of stoimach acid
ph of lemon juice
ph of urine
ph of saliva
ph of blood
ph of pancreatic juice
ph of ammonia cleaners
ph of oven cleaners
ph of sodium hydroxide
What is a monomer?
The basic building blocks to make larger molecules like polymers
MADE BY MOST COMMON ELEMENTS
Name 5 common monomers
glucose, glycerol and fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides
Name 4 important polymers
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
The polymer carbohydrate is built from what?
The monomer glucose
2 types of lipids in the human body
fats and phopholipids
What do plants sue glucose molecules for?
To build starch
How is glycogen made?
In the liver by shaping and combing glucose monomers
What is the primary function of a carbohydrate?
What is a fatty acid molecule made of?
long chains of covalently bonded carbon
What is a glycerol molecule made of?
a short chain of 3 carbon atoms covalently bonded
How is fat and oil made?
By attaching 3 fatty acid chains to a glycerol molecule
Are fatty acids a glycerol polar or non?
Does not dissolve in water
What are phospoholipids made of?
2 fatty acids with a glycerol backbone
What do phospholipids have instead of a third fatty acid
A nitrogen and phosphate group attached to the third carbon in the glycerol molecule
What is interesting about phospholipds and water?
the nitrogen and phosphate group is polar and therefore water loving (hydrophilic)
What is the head of a phopholipid
the nitrogen phosphate group
what is the tail of a phospholipid?
the 2 fatty acid chains
What is a micelle?
The sphere formed when a phopholipid group of molecules is in water
How is a phospholipid bilayer formed
the tails and heads of phospholipids line up
what polymer is built from amino acids
how many amino acids can be used to build proteins?
what is the chemical bacnbone all amine acids share?
a central carbon bonded to an amino on one side and a carboxly group on the other
what makes the twenty different amino acids distinct of one another
the R group
what does the final function of a protein rely on
the one of twenty amino acids used to nbuild it which is dependent on that amin acid's r group
name the two non polar amindo acids
valine and tyrosine
name the three polar amino acids
argenine, cysteine, and aspartic acid
what happens during dehydration synthesis
OH (hydroxyl molecule) of the carboxyl group on one amino acid is removed, and a hydrogen atom from the amino group of a second amino acid is removed.
what is the result of dehydration synthesis
a water molecule and a covalent bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amindo group of a second amino acid
what is the covalent bond shared between 2 amino acids called?
a peptide bond or protein!
how many levels are there to protein structure
what is primary structure
the simple linear order of the 20 amino acids in a protein
what is secondary structure
when the amino acids of a protein are woven into pleated sheets or spirals
what is the spiral called in secondary structure
an alpha helix
what is tertiary structure
the further folding of the secondary sheet or slinky into a more complex pattern by the r groups activity
what causes the twisting and bending in secondary structure?
hydrogen bons amond carboxyls and aminos
what is qauternary structure
when two or more proteins and associated with each other
name an example of a quaterary level protein
name the 2 nucleic acids
dna and rna
which monomers build the plymers DNA and RNA
what is a gene
a sequence of nucleotides that carries instructions tobuild one protein
what is the function of the nucleus
to contain the dna for making proteins in a cell
what does the smooth er do?
stores hormones and stuff for complex functions
which organelles are involved in protein synthesis
nucleus, rough ER, and golgi
name three things found in the cytoplasm
proteins, elctrolytes, and cell organelles
the ability of an external solution (the ECF) to have an effect on the volume and pressure of the fluid inside a cell (the ICF).
what is it called when a protein is required to transport molecules in and out of the cell
carrier mediated transport
are hydrophobic solutes involved in carrier mediated transport
NO! they can go through a semipermiable membrane without proteins
ions with a positive charge
ions with a negative charge
what is membrane voltage due to
their being more cations outside of the cell than inside
what is it called when membrane voltage is not at aoint where it is interacting with its environment?
resting membrane potential/voltage
what is a neuron
single cell that is specialized to transmit electric signals from one part of the body to anothe`
what does one call the elctrical signals given off by a neuron
what are neurons called that transfer impulses away from the brain
What neuron travels from the spinal cord to just above the knee
the sicatic knee
what do you call neurons that send impulses toward the brain
what is a nerve?
a series of neurons
what is the projection off the soma called
what is the swollen area between the axon and soma called
the axon hillock
what is the end of the axon called
the axon terminal or synaptic knob
If myelin sheaths are present, where are they found?
around scwhwann cells on the axon
what is the purpose of myelin sheaths?
helping the impulses go faster
why is there more sodium outside the cells and more potassium inside the cell
sodium potassium pumps
in which direction does the sodium and potassium flow while being pumped
sodium out and potassium in