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Flashcards in Bio 141 Exam 1 Deck (151):
1

What is the membrane made of?

Hydrophobic lipids

2

Cytoplasm

Space between organs

3

What does the nucleus contain

DNA

4

What does DNA contain

Instructions to make proteins

5

Diffusion

Movement of substance from high concentration to low.
GRADIENT REQUIRED

6

Membrane Protein

Substance "doorway"

7

Rough ER location and function

Located near nucleus and is involved in shaping proteins

8

Golgi Apparatus

Second step in protein shaping after rough ER

9

Mitochondria

ATP producer powerhouse babay!

10

Smooth ER

Storage sacks

11

Vesicles

Movable storage sacks

12

Osmosis

The movement of water from an area with more freeh20 molecules to less

movement of water toward a SALTIER solution

13

What must substances be to dissolve in water?>

Polar

14

Solutes

Dissolve in water

15

Solvent

The liquid in which the solute dissolves

16

Can h20 molecules in a hydration sphere move?

Yes, but with more difficulty than free h2o molecules

17

Isotonic solution

Equal concentration of solutes in extra and intra

18

Hypotonic solution

Lower solute outside cell

Water moves into cell and SWELLS

19

96% of matter in organisms are these 4 elements:

HONC

20

Non Polar hydrophilic or phobic

hydrophobic

21

Polar hydrophilic or phobic

hydrophilic

22

What is the reference point for isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic?

The extracellular fluid is compared to the intra (STANDARD)

23

Tonicity

How an external solution will affect the inside of a cell
isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic

24

What does active transport require?

energy in the form of ATP

25

What does active transport move against

A concentration gradient

26

What does facilitated diffusion require?

a concentration gradient, NOT ATP

27

Where does the Na and K go when pumped?

Na goes outside
K goes inside

28

Do sodium potassium pumps require ATP

Yes, ions are moved against the concentration gradient

29

Voltage

Separation of charged particles

30

Current

The flow of charged particles

31

resistance

Anything that slows current

32

Resting Membrane Potential

Ions in equilibrium inside and outside of the cell

33

What is the average RMP/RMV?

-70mV

34

Soma

Cell body

35

What does the SOMA contain

nucleus

36

What are the extensions that come off of the Soma called??

Dendrites

37

What do dendrites do?

Increase the surface area to accommodate for more protein passageways

38

Synaspe

Small area between two dendrites

39

Axon

The long extenstion of the soma

40

Where di voltage changes occur?

The triggher zone/axon hillock

41

What is the membrane sheath that acts as insulation

Myelin Sheath

42

What is a common small chemical messenger that acts as a key to proteins in membranes

Ligand

43

Depolarization

Membrane voltage increases from resting membrance potential

44

Small changes in membrane voltage that result in no tangible way

Local potentials

45

What ion is entering the cell during depolarization?

Na

46

Hyperpolarization

Membrane voltage decreasing from RMV

47

Repolarization

Voltage returning back to Resting Membrane Potential

48

How do ligands affect voltage gated channels?

They bring the voltage up to threshold by allowing ions in

49

Where are the majority of ligand gated channels located?

Dendrites coming off of the soma

50

Where are the majority of voltage gated channels located?

The Axon Hillock

51

What goes into voltage gated channels?

Na

52

What goes out of voltage gated channels?

K

53

What flows more easily through voltage gated channels?

Na (Automatic door)

54

What flows more difficultly through voltage gated channels?

K (Manual Door)

55

What happens to the flow of K once a cell begins to repolarize?

The Na doors close and allow K to flow more freely outward to enhance repolarization

56

What causes the slight hyperpolarization that occurs when a cell is returning back to RMV?

The K doors take a bit too long to close

57

What forms the nucleus of an atom?

Protons and neutrons

58

Isotope

A version of at atom with a different amount of protons and neutrons

59

Do neutrons affect AM?

Yes

60

What is an ion?

Any molecule that has charge

61

What are molecules?

Atoms bound together

62

Covalent bond

When atoms bond by shared electrons

63

How does a polar covalent bond work?

The electrons shared by two atoms are shared unequally

64

What kind of polar covalent bond does water have?

The hydrogen is positive and the O is negative

65

What happens when electrons are shared equally between 2 atoms?

Non-polar covalent bond

66

Ionic bond

When a positive atom is attracted to a negative ion

67

Which is stronger: Covalent or ionic bond?

Covalent

68

What do hydrogen bonds do?

The weakly bond neighboring molecules

69

Do hydrogen bonds create molecules?

NO

70

Electrolyte

Any molecule that becomes an ion when mixed with water

71

What do you call the water shell that forms around an ion or molecule?

Hydration Sphere

72

What kind of substances dissolvein water?

Polar

73

Why do oils not dissolve in water?

They are not charged and never form a hydration sphere

74

What is an electrolyte that releases a hydrogen ion in water?

An Acid

75

What is an electrolyte that that binds a hydrogen molecule in water?

A Base

76

ph of hydrocholric acid

0

77

ph of stoimach acid

2

78

ph of lemon juice

3

79

ph of urine

5

80

ph of saliva

6.5

81

ph of blood

7.4

82

ph of pancreatic juice

8

83

ph of ammonia cleaners

11

84

ph of oven cleaners

13.5

85

ph of sodium hydroxide

14

86

What is a monomer?

The basic building blocks to make larger molecules like polymers
MADE BY MOST COMMON ELEMENTS

87

Name 5 common monomers

glucose, glycerol and fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides

88

Name 4 important polymers

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

89

The polymer carbohydrate is built from what?

The monomer glucose

90

2 types of lipids in the human body

fats and phopholipids

91

What do plants sue glucose molecules for?

To build starch

92

How is glycogen made?

In the liver by shaping and combing glucose monomers

93

What is the primary function of a carbohydrate?

Energy

94

What is a fatty acid molecule made of?

long chains of covalently bonded carbon

95

What is a glycerol molecule made of?

a short chain of 3 carbon atoms covalently bonded

96

How is fat and oil made?

By attaching 3 fatty acid chains to a glycerol molecule

97

Are fatty acids a glycerol polar or non?

non polar

98

Hydrophobic

Does not dissolve in water

99

What are phospoholipids made of?

2 fatty acids with a glycerol backbone

100

What do phospholipids have instead of a third fatty acid

A nitrogen and phosphate group attached to the third carbon in the glycerol molecule

101

What is interesting about phospholipds and water?

the nitrogen and phosphate group is polar and therefore water loving (hydrophilic)

102

What is the head of a phopholipid

the nitrogen phosphate group

103

what is the tail of a phospholipid?

the 2 fatty acid chains

104

What is a micelle?

The sphere formed when a phopholipid group of molecules is in water

105

How is a phospholipid bilayer formed

the tails and heads of phospholipids line up

106

what polymer is built from amino acids

protein

107

how many amino acids can be used to build proteins?

20

108

what is the chemical bacnbone all amine acids share?

a central carbon bonded to an amino on one side and a carboxly group on the other

109

what makes the twenty different amino acids distinct of one another

the R group

110

what does the final function of a protein rely on

the one of twenty amino acids used to nbuild it which is dependent on that amin acid's r group

111

name the two non polar amindo acids

valine and tyrosine

112

name the three polar amino acids

argenine, cysteine, and aspartic acid

113

what happens during dehydration synthesis

OH (hydroxyl molecule) of the carboxyl group on one amino acid is removed, and a hydrogen atom from the amino group of a second amino acid is removed.

114

what is the result of dehydration synthesis

a water molecule and a covalent bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amindo group of a second amino acid

115

what is the covalent bond shared between 2 amino acids called?

a peptide bond or protein!

116

how many levels are there to protein structure

4

117

what is primary structure

the simple linear order of the 20 amino acids in a protein

118

what is secondary structure

when the amino acids of a protein are woven into pleated sheets or spirals

119

what is the spiral called in secondary structure

an alpha helix

120

what is tertiary structure

the further folding of the secondary sheet or slinky into a more complex pattern by the r groups activity

121

what causes the twisting and bending in secondary structure?

hydrogen bons amond carboxyls and aminos

122

what is qauternary structure

when two or more proteins and associated with each other

123

name an example of a quaterary level protein

hemoglobin

124

name the 2 nucleic acids

dna and rna

125

which monomers build the plymers DNA and RNA

nucleotides

126

what is a gene

a sequence of nucleotides that carries instructions tobuild one protein

127

what is the function of the nucleus

to contain the dna for making proteins in a cell

128

what does the smooth er do?

stores hormones and stuff for complex functions

129

which organelles are involved in protein synthesis

nucleus, rough ER, and golgi

130

name three things found in the cytoplasm

proteins, elctrolytes, and cell organelles

131

tonicty

the ability of an external solution (the ECF) to have an effect on the volume and pressure of the fluid inside a cell (the ICF).

132

what is it called when a protein is required to transport molecules in and out of the cell

carrier mediated transport

133

are hydrophobic solutes involved in carrier mediated transport

NO! they can go through a semipermiable membrane without proteins

134

cations

ions with a positive charge

135

anions

ions with a negative charge

136

what is membrane voltage due to

their being more cations outside of the cell than inside

137

what is it called when membrane voltage is not at aoint where it is interacting with its environment?

resting membrane potential/voltage

138

what is a neuron

single cell that is specialized to transmit electric signals from one part of the body to anothe`

139

what does one call the elctrical signals given off by a neuron

impulses

140

what are neurons called that transfer impulses away from the brain

efferent neurons

141

What neuron travels from the spinal cord to just above the knee

the sicatic knee

142

what do you call neurons that send impulses toward the brain

afferent neurons

143

what is a nerve?

a series of neurons

144

what is the projection off the soma called

the axon

145

what is the swollen area between the axon and soma called

the axon hillock

146

what is the end of the axon called

the axon terminal or synaptic knob

147

If myelin sheaths are present, where are they found?

around scwhwann cells on the axon

148

what is the purpose of myelin sheaths?

helping the impulses go faster

149

why is there more sodium outside the cells and more potassium inside the cell

sodium potassium pumps

150

in which direction does the sodium and potassium flow while being pumped

sodium out and potassium in

151

what happens to potassium when voltage gated potassium channels reach threshold voltage

the potassium leaves the cell resulting in repolarization