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Flashcards in Bio141 Final Deck (91):
1

Name 2 functions of Renal physiology

waste excretion
regulation of blood volume and solute concentration

2

in what 3 ways does the kideny regulatethe blood

water balance
salt balance
ph levels

3

how many kidneys are there

2

4

name the 3 parts of the urinary tract

ureters
urethra
bladder

5

describe the 4 stages of blood to urine

blood
filtrate
tubular fluid
urine

6

about how much blood is filtered and where is it done?

25% of cardiac output in the glomerulus

7

what is the function of the renal tubule

reabsorbs nutrients and adjusts water lvevels and ph

8

what drives blood throughthe capillaries

blood pressure

9

what 3 things get reabsorbed in the proximal convaluted tubule

nutrients, waste, h2o

10

filtrate

fluid after exiting blood into glomerulus

11

through what arterials does the blood enter and exit

it enters via the afferent
it exits via the efferent

12

what does it mean by saying the capillaries in the glomerulus are fenestrated

they are semipermeable

13

name 2 things that cannot leave blood to enter the glomerular capsule

RBCs and proteins

14

where is the majority of filtrate reabsorbed asnd about how much

60% in the pct

15

glomular filtration rate and average per dat

125ml/min and 180l a day

16

how are things reabsorbed in the pct?

ion gradients and protein transporters

17

describe the descending seciton of the loop of henle

it is thin and permeable to only water

18

describe the ascending section of the oloop oh henle

it is thick and permeable only to solutes like na and cl

19

how are ions pulled out of the ascending loop

active transport

20

what controls the action of the active transport proteins in the ascending loop

hormones that can be released in greater amounts if dehydrated

21

what is meant by countercurrent multiplication

water following salt through the loop of henle

22

what are the 2 types of nephrons

cortical
jextamedullary

23

name the 2 supporting tubules

vasa recta
peritubular

24

which is the normal supporting tubules that are found in both types of nephrons

peritubular

25

what is the purpose of the vasa recta capillaries

they are specialized to concentrate filtrate

26

where are the peritubular capillaries found

around convoluted tubules

27

where are the vasa recta capillaries found

around the loop of henle

28

what 2 hormones are associated witht he distal convoluted tubule nd what do they do

1. aldesterone stimulates Na reabsorpotion
2. antidiuretic hormone stimulates water absorption

29

what does adh do?

keeps the minimum amount of water in the remaining filtrate without dehydrating the body

30

what releases adh

hypothalamus

31

how does adh work to rehydrate you

it inserts aqaporins into the collecting duct

32

if you are breathing too slowly and have acidosis and too many h ions, where are they dumped?

in the dct

33

what is the ureter

the muscular tube that connects the bladder and kidney

34

how much water can the bladder hold?

1l maximum

35

urethra and voluntary or involuntary?

connects bladder to exterior and controlled by both

36

where are gametes produced

the gonads

37

what is the male gonad and hormone

testes and androgen

38

where does sperm production occur

seminifeorous tubules

39

what else occurs in the seminiferous tubules

sperm maturation

40

how long does it take for sperm to grow and mature

2-3 months

41

where are sperm formed and what gives them androgens

in the wall of the duct and interstitial cels give them androgen

42

haploid

23 chromosomes

43

name 4 parts of sperm maturation

acrosome forms
flagellum produced
mitochondria around flagellum
cytoplasm lost

44

2 parts of spermiation

release from sertolli cells
free to swim baby

45

where does sperm go after the testis and what happens there

the epididymis and learns to swim

46

where does sperm go after the epididymis

the vas deferens

47

what is the expansion at the end of the vas deferens and what is it used for

the ampulla is used for sperm storage

48

what are the three parts of the urethra in a male

prostatic urethra
membranous urethra
spongy urethra

49

where is precum produced

the bulbouurethral glands

50

what are the 3 parts of semen

sperm
seminal vesicles
prostate gland stuff

51

seminal vesicle fluid

thick yellow and nhutrient rich

52

prostate gland fluid

thin milky and good for siwmming

53

is precum semen

NO

54

gnrh

gonadotropin relasing hormone

55

what releases GNRH and where does it go

the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland

56

what are the two gonadotropins that can be released by the pituitary gland

folicle stimulating hormone
leutinizing hormone

57

endocrine organs

gonads

58

what is the only thing inhibin blocks

follicle stimulating hormone

59

what turns off GNRH and where are the recptors

receptors in the hypothalamus and pit gland

60

what 2 cells does leutenizing hormone affect

nurse and interstatial

61

what does leutenizing hormone do in the nurse cells

allows testosterone to work via androgren binding proteins

62

what creates the inhibin that slows the pituitary gland

the nurse cells

63

scrotum

ball sack

64

what 2 muscles cover the scrotum

the dartos and cremaster

65

when does the dartos contract

temperature

66

when does the cremaster contract

excitement fear arousal

67

3 internal parts of le penis

2 corpus cavernsom
1 corpus spongiusum around urethra

68

is it possible to experiecne ajaculation seperate from an orgasm

yes

69

4 phases of the male orgasm

excitement
plateau
orgasm
resolution

70

by what system is erection controlled

the parasympathetic cause you needa be relaxed

71

what causes dilation of blood vessels in the penis

nitros oxide

72

during what stage is precum released

plateau

73

what are the 2 stages of an orgasm

emission and expulsion

74

name 2 parts of the emission stage and by what system

the sympathetic system causes semen to enter urethral bulb
and oxytocin is released

75

what controls the expulsion stage and is it voluntary

the somatic system and yes!

76

name 2 parts of the uterine tube

oviduct and the fallopian tube

77

what is the male equivalent of labia majora

scrotum

78

what is the male equivalent to the labia minora

penis shaft

79

male equivalent of clitorus

prepuce

80

vaginal lubricant

vaginal transudate

81

how long is the pregnancy window and where doe sit start

2-3 days
uterine tubes

82

what is the female strands that help guide sperm

musin

83

from which cells does the placenta form and after what

after the zygote plants into the uterine wall cells from mom and baby make placenta

84

how is polyspermy prevented

once the sperm has docked depolarization occurs making docking proteins inactive and flushing away other sperm

85

what is theball of cells that travels to uterus

molucula

86

who produces hcg and what does it do

the cells of the baby to stop menstration

87

what do pregnancy tests check for

human chroionic gonadotropin

88

when does the placenta form and whos job does it take

the third month
takes HCG jobs
-estrogen
-progestorone

89

what is the difference between an embryo and a fetus

all organs are in place in fetus

90

what are the follicle cells and what do they do

support cells for the oocyte that release hormones

91

3 parts of uterine wall from inside to outside

endometrium
metrium
perimetrium