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Flashcards in BIO141 Exam 2 Deck (277):
1

skeletal muscle

voluntary control
body movement, facial expression, speech, breathing

2

cardiac muscle

involuntary
heart muscle

3

smooth muscle

involuntary control
digestive system, heart, iris

4

4 things all muscle types have in common

excitability
contractility
extensibility
elasticity

5

excitability

the ability of cells to produce action potentials

6

contractility

the ability of cells the shorten

7

extensibility

the ability of cells to stretch

8

elasticity

when cells stretch they can go back to normal size

9

what is the tough connective tissue that joins bones to skeletal muscle

tendon

10

fascicles

bundles of muscle cells

11

what do you call individual muscle cells

muscle fibers

12

what do you call the membrane of a muscle cell

sarcolemma

13

cytoplasm of skeletal muscle cells

sarcoplasm

14

myofibrils

bundles of protein found within the sarcoplasm

15

individual overlapping protein strands found within myfibrils

myofilaments

16

name the two types of myofilaments

thick and thin

17

overlapping units of thick and thin filaments

sarcomere

18

what happens to filaments as a muscle contracts

the slide past one another

19

what is the protein that makes up thin filaments

actin

20

protein that makes up thick filaments

myosin

21

complex network of tubes and sacs in the sarcoplasm

sarcoplasmic reticulum

22

what kind of ions are found in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and what do they lie around

calcium lies around myofilaments

23

terminal cisternae

large flat sacs sitting at the end of the sarcolasmic reticulum

24

where do trqanseverse tubules travel

from the terminal cisternae to the surface of the celland directly to the sarcolemma

25

what travels through t tubules and what gets released as a result

action potentials travel down t tubules and release calcium in the sarcoplasm

26

what does the calcium in the sarcoplasm do?

casues myofilaments to change shape so that muscles contract

27

sarcomere

series of thick and thin muscle filament

28

which type of filament has a head

myosin thick filament

29

f actin

the long string of beads associated with thin filament

30

g actin

the beads of thin filament

31

where is the active site located on thin filament?

on the g actin

32

what covers active sites when muscles are relaxed

tropomyosin

33

troponin

small proteins which calcium attaches to in order to change the shape, moving the tropomyosin so the myosin heads can attach to the active sites and contract the sarcomere

34

what releases the calcium that attaches to troponin

sarcoplasmic reticulum

35

neurons that stimulate muscle cells

motor neurons

36

the synapse between the motor neuron and the muscle cell

neuromuscular junction

37

where is there a higher concentration of calcium

outside the cell

38

how do voltage gated calcium channels become opened

they are activated by action potentials moving downthe axon of the motor neauron to the synaptic knobvCAUSING IT TO OPEN

39

how does calcium get into the motor neauron

after the action potentials open the voltage gated calcium channels calcium DIFFUSES into the SYNAPTIC KNOB

40

what does calcium do once it is in the cytoplasm of the motor neuron?

it attaches to proteins which activate to move synamptic vesicles full of acetylcholine toward the cell memebrane

41

what do the synaptic vesicles hold and what happens to it

they hold the acetylcholine that gets released into the synaptic cleft

42

tiny space between the motor neuron and muscle cell

synaptic cleft

43

what does acetycholine do once it gets into the synaptic cleft

it diffuses to attach to a cholergenic receptor

44

what ion does the cholergenic receptor allow into the sarcoplasm of the muscle cell

sodium

45

what is the depolarization and repolarization of the muscle cell via acetylcholine called

end plate potential

46

epp

end plate potential

47

what does the depolarization phase of the epp cause

the excitation ofnearby voltage gated sodium channels

48

where does the action potential caused by the depolarization phase of the epp eventually travel to

the t tubules and inside the muscle cell

49

what does the action potential that travels through the t tubules cause

the calcium channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum to open

50

from where in the sarcplasmic reticulum in the calcium relased

terminal cisternae

51

what is the activated position

when energy from ATP was used to pull the myosin head back like a spring

52

cross bridge formation

when the myosin heads are in activated position and attached to the active sites

53

what happens immediately after cross bridge formation

myosin heads bend further pulling the actin toward the center of the sarcomere

54

what is it called then myosin heads pull actin toward the center of the sarcomere

the power stroke

55

what is released during the power stroke

adp and p from the myosin head

56

what causes the myosin head to detach from the active site

a new ATP molecule

57

what is it called when atp is broken down

hydrolyzed

58

what moves the myosin head back to its orginal position after the power stroke

a second ATP molecule

59

what happens when the sarcomere is as its original postion

your muscles are relaxed

60

what happens when you stop sending action potentials to the synaptic knob

calcium gated channels are closed and calcium pumps pump the calcium OUT

61

what happens to leftover acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft (3)

enzymes such as acetycholine esterase break it down

it diffuses away

some are transported back into the synaptic knob

62

what happens when action potentials stop traveling down t tubules

calcium channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum close and calcium pumps pump calcium back into the sarcoplsmic reticulum

63

What does the right pump in the heart do

receives blood from body

64

what does the left pump of the heart do

send blood to the rest of the body

65

name the two chambers of the heart

right and left atria
right and left ventricle

66

what are the upper 2 chambers of the heart

the atria

67

what are the lower 2 chambers of the heart called

ventricles

68

what separates the atrium from the ventricles

the atrioventricular AV valve

69

through what does blood from the body enter the right atrium

superior and inferior vena cava

70

from where does blood from the lungs enter the left atrium

the pulmonary vein

71

what prevents blood from flowing into the atriums when the ventricles contract

the AV valve

72

where does blood from the right ventricle flow to

through the semilunar pulmonary valve and into the pulmonary artery

73

where does blood in the left ventricle flow to

through the aortic semilunar valve and into the aorta

74

from where is the first heart sound

the closure of the av valve when ventricles contract

75

from where does the second heart sound come

the closure of the semilunar valves when the ventricles relax

76

what type of blood does the superior vena cava contain

oxygen depleted blood from the head anfd shoulders

77

what kind of blood does the inferior vena cava contain

oxygen depleted blood from the abdomin and lower limbs

78

what type of blood do the pulmonary veins carry

high oxygen blood from the lungs to the heart

79

in what manner does the heart fill with blood

from the bottom to the top
ventricles up to the atrium

80

once the 4 chambers of the heart fill with blood which parts contract

the left and right atrium to create pressure in the ventricles

81

where is blood in the pulmonary artery going

toward the lungs

82

the portion of the pathway that carries blood cells to and from the lungs

the pulmonary circuit

83

thw portion of the pathway that carries blood to and from the rest of the body cells

systemic circuit

84

what happens to blood pressure as blood is more distant from the aorta

is drops

85

what is the phase of the cardiac cycle when the heart is contracting

systole

86

what is the phase of the heart cycle when the heart is relaxing

diastole

87

when you measure blood pressure what two things are you measuring

systolic and diastolic blood pressure

88

what 2 devices are used to measure blood pressure audio

a sthethoscope and a sphygonamometer

89

the sound that is made when the cuff over the brachial artery is deflated

korotkoff

90

how do you indicate sytolic pressure

deplate the cuff until you hear korotcoff then read the sphygonamometer

91

how do you indicate diastolic pressure

deflate the cuff until the sound of korotkoff disappears and read the sphygonamometer

92

what 2 things make blood pressure vary

cardiac output and peripheral resistance

93

in what way id blood pressure recorded

systolic pressure over diastolic

94

what is the average blood pressure of a healthy adult

120/80 HGmm

95

where should one measure blood pressure

the brachial artery

96

the tendancy for an organism to maintain a fairly stable internal environment

homeostasis

97

name 3 examples of homeostasis

shivering, sweating, and urinating

98

self correcting systems that do not allow your body to exceed a certain set of limits

negative feedback loops

99

specialized nerve cells that measure blood pressure

baroreceptors

100

where are barorecptors found

large arteries around the heart

101

what do the barorecptors do if blood pressure is high

send more and more action potentials to the brainvia afferent neurons

102

in what part of the brain ais blood pressure controlled

the medulla oblongata

103

which circuit of neurons can increase and decrease heart rate

the cardiac control center

104

which circuit of neurons adjust the diameter of the blood vessels

the vasometer center

105

when blood vessels become narrower

vasoconstriction

106

when blood vessels become larger

vasodilation

107

name the 2 parts of the cardiac control center

the carioaccelatroy center and the cardioinhibitory center

108

what do neaurons in the cardioaccelatory center do

stimulate efferent motor neurons to cause the heart to beat afster

109

why are the motor neaurons in the cardioacceletory center symoathetic

they prepare the body for stressful activities

110

what do neurons in the cardioinhibitory center do

stimulate motor neurons which cause the heart to relax

111

why are the motor neaurons in the caridoinhibitory center parasympoathetic

they prepare the body for restful activity

112

what three parts create the negative feedback loop involved with blood pressure

the medulla oblongata, the heart/blood vessels, and the barorecptors

113

what happens to the cardioacceletory center when the barorecptors send more action potentials

the cardioacceletory center sends fewer action potentials

114

what happens to the cardioinhibitory center when the barorecptors send more action potentials

the cardioinhibitory center sends more action potentials down the paraympathetic motor neurons to slow the heart

115

what happens when the barorecptors send many action potentials to the vasometer center

fewer action potentials travel down the sympathetic motor neurons and vessels vasodilate

116

if a cell can produce action potentials at regular intervals

autorhythmic

117

heart muscle cells

cardiac myocites

118

why are cardiac myocites able to contract in a coordinated fashion and travel repidly from cell to cell

intercalated disks

119

where are intercalated disks located

at the end of cells

120

what three parts make up intercalated disks

interdigitating folds
mechanical junctions
gap junctions

121

interconnecting folds of cell membrance

interdigitating folds

122

stong proteins that bind cardiac myocites and prevent them from tearing during heart beats

mechanical junctions

123

example of a mechanical junction

desmosomes

124

where places in intercollated disks connect the cytoplasm of one cardiac myocite to another

gap junctions

125

what do gap junctions make possible

action potentials to travel across all cardiac myocites at once so they can contract simultaneously

126

what are the 2 types of cardiac myocytes

contractile myocites
cellsof the cardiac condution system

127

cells that actually contract and push blood through arteries and heart chambers

contractile myocites

128

cells which most of the heart contain

contractile myocites

129

cells of the heart that are autorhythmic and generate action potentials

cells of the cardiac conution system

130

name 3 parts of the heart in order in which action potentials travel

right atria
left atria
to both ventricles imultaneously

131

the cluster of cells in the right atria in which action potentials begin

the SA node SINOATRIAL

132

which cells in the heart depolarize more rapidly than all others

cells of the SA node

133

do cells in the atria share gap junctions with cells in the ventricles

mostly no, only in one place

134

the pacemaker of the heart

the sinoatrial SA node

135

the cluster of cells that allow action potentials to travel from the atri to the ventricles

the atrioventricular node AV

136

where do action potentials go after leaving the AV node

through the atrioventricular bundle

137

what happens to action potentials once they pass through the av bundle

they split into 2 directions toward the left or right ventricles

138

what is the wall that separates the ventricles

interventricular septum

139

what happens when action potentials hit the bottom of the heart

they reach the purkinje fibers

140

what do the purkinje fibers do

they ensure that action potentials reach all contractile myocytes

141

another name for purkinje fibers

subendocardial fibers

142

electrocardiograph

the machine that measures small action potential differences in the extracellular fluid of the body

143

electrocardiogram

the display of the small voltage changes across the body

144

what happens to the extracellular fluid around the atria when depolarization occurs

the extracellular fluid becomes mroe negative due to the loss of positive sodium ions

145

where do you measure the differences in voltage when using an ECG

the right and left side of the body

146

to what range can an ECG measure

microvolts

147

is an ECG the same as a cardiac action potential

NO DAMMIT

148

p wave

caused as cardiac cells depolarize the atria

149

qrs complex

caused as action potentials depolarize the cells of the ventricles

150

t wave

caused by the repolarization occuring in the centricles

151

p-q segment

time between atrial and ventricular depolarization

152

another name for a healthy ECG

normal sinus rhythm

153

during which wave do the atria begin to contract

p wave

154

during which wave do the ventricles begin to contract

the q wave

155

during which wave does ventricluar relaxtion occur

the t wave

156

when a part of the cardiac conduction system is not working properly

heart block

157

first degree heart block

cardiac conduction system is slow to transmit action potentials from atriua to ventricles

158

what shows first degree heart block on an ECG

a delayed p to q interval

159

what can cause first degree heart block

problems in the AV bundle or AV node

160

second degree heart block

severe problems in the av bundle or node

161

what shows second degree heart block on an ECG

p waves that are not always followed by QRS complexes

162

third degree heart block

action potentials from the AV bundle or node are not reaching the ventricles at all COMPLETE HEART BLOCK

163

why can you still live with third degree heart block?

all cells in the heart are autorhythmic, but the SA NODE depolarizes much faster

164

what do you call a pacemaker that is outside of the SA node

an ecotopic pacemaker

165

no coordination of heartbeat

fibrillation

166

defibrillator

delivers an electric shock to the heart to stop fibrillation

167

what will electric shock do to a cell

depolarize it

168

cardiac output

how much blood your heart pumps out per minute

169

what 2 things does cardiac output depend on

how fast the heart is ebating and the force with which the heart contracts

170

the amount of blood ejected from the heart with each beat

stroke volume

171

the amount of heart beats per minute

heart rate

172

mathematical formula for cardiac output

herat beats per minute time stroke volume per contraction

173

anythign that effects how fast the heart contracts

chronoitropic

174

anything that effects how forecefully the heart contracts

inotropic

175

what larger system is the cardiac control center a part of

the autonomic nervous system

176

receptors that monitor oxygen and co2 content of blood

chemoreceptors

177

receptors that monitor activity and position of limbs

proprioreceptors

178

a collention of synapses that connect one motor neuron to another

a ganglion

179

conducts action potentials from the CNS to the ganglion

preganglionic receptor

180

conducts action potentials from the ganglion to the organ

postganglionic recptor EFFECTOR

181

do the parasympathetic and sympathetic NS share the same neurons?

no, they use different ganglionic fibers and motor neurons

182

where in the body are sympathetic gangle usually located

near the spinal cord

183

where in the body are parasympathetic ganglia usually located

near the organ or as part of the organ

184

what is the neuron sued bu the parasympathetic post ganglia

acetylcholine

185

what is the neurotransmitter used by the sympathetic post ganglia

neuropenephrine

186

what is special about ganglias and heart cells

they form neuromuscular junctions with the SA node

187

what kind of receptor receives norepenephrine

agrenergic

188

in the heart, what do adregernic receptors open and close

sodium channels

189

in the heart what do cholergenic receptors open and close

potassium channels

190

name a third neurotransmitter that can effect heartbeat and how

epenrphrine can affect calcium levels and increase strength of cardiac contraction

191

what does acetocholine do to the SA node

hyperpolarization and less frequent action potential

192

how does acetocholine affect calcium lvels around the heart

it lowers the calcium levels in the cytoplasm and decreases the strength of the heart beat

193

quiescent period

when both the atria and ventricles are relaxed

194

atrial systole

everything that happens when the atria contract

195

isovolumetric contraction of the ventricles

everything that occurs when the ventricles contract and the semilunar valves are shut

196

ventricular systole

everything that happens when the ventricles contract

197

ventricular ejection

everything that happenbs during ventricular contractrion when the semilunaer valaves are open

198

isovolumetric relaxtion

everything that occurds when the ventricles relax but the av valves are closeed

199

effeerent neurons

emit impulses away from brin

200

afferent neurons

emit impulses toward the brain

201

EPSP and what does it do

excitatory post synaptic potential moves toward threshold voltage to creat action potentials

202

IPSP

inhibitory post synaptic potential moves away from threshold

203

what two types of chemicals "gith it out" until a channel opens

IPSP AND EPSP

204

how does the cns receieve info?

in the form of action potentials

205

how can the cns interpret different action potentials

neural coding

206

weak stimulus causes

fewer actions potentials per second

207

strong stimulus causes

many action potentials per second

208

what two parts make up the cnetral nervous system

the brain and the spinal cord

209

telencephalon

speech, though, sensory perception, memory, VOLUNTARY CONTROL

210

what does the diencephalon control

involuntary functions such as emotions hunger thirst

211

mesencephalon

relays ifnromation to hgiher brain centers

212

metencephalon

coordinates movement of skeletal muscle

213

myelenacephalon

cardiac, viamotor, and respitory systems

214

peripheral nervous system

all parts of the CNS except brain and spinal cord

215

sesnory neaurons

afferent fibers

216

motor neurons

efferent fibers

217

autonomic nervous system

sensory and motor neurons involved in everything except skeletal muscle

218

sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system

fight or flight responses and preparing the body for physical activity

219

parasympathetic division of autonomic nervous system

calming effect, resting, digesting

220

how many enaurons does it take to get from cns to effector

TWO

221

names 3 types of effectors

organs
glands
smooth muscle

222

what do preganglionic neurons always release

acetocholine

223

what two neurotransmitters do post ganglionic fibers release

acetocholine and neropenphrine

224

sympathetic fibers relase

neropenephrine

225

parasympoathetic fibers alwasy realease

acetocholine

226

most organs are innervated by both...

para and sym fibers

227

name three places in the body where para and sym have antagonistic effects

heart
diaphragm
gi tract

228

where do para and sym have cooperative effects

slaivary glands

229

how does symp effect the heeart

more axc potentials and excites

230

how does sympp effect the diaphragm

more ax potentials and excites

231

how does sym effect the GI tract

more ax potentials and inhibits

232

name two parts of the body that do not have dual innervation and which fibers

the arteries and the reprodutctive system

233

how is info such as mem and sleep wake cycles encoded in CNS

neauronal circuits

234

reverberating circuits

when APs stimulate the same set of neurons

235

what kinds of things do reverberating circuits control

sleepwake cycles
short term memory
respiraqtion

236

parallel after discharge neaurons

APs from input neuron stimulate the output neuron at different times

237

what do parallel after discharge neurons control

complex mental tasks

238

diverging circuits

APs from one or a few neurons are amplified across many neurons

239

what do diverging circuits do

stimulate motor units or info stored across CNS

240

converging circuits

APs from many neurons converge to one neuron

241

what do converging circuits result in

many inputs from various stimuli ca result in emotions

242

where are reflex decisions made

the spinal cord

243

which type of fiber in the CNS is mylinated

the preganglionic fiber

244

what are the only type of motor neurons the reproductive system is associated with

parasympathetic

245

what are the only type of motor neurons the arteries are associated woith

sympathetic

246

where are the most leaky sodium channels

the SA node

247

what are the 5 types of vessels

arteries
arterials
capillaries
veins
venules

248

whwre do arteries move blood

away from heart

249

what is the structure of arteries like

round and thick

250

arterials

small branches coming off of arteries

251

capillaries

exchange vessels

252

venules

collect blood from capillary beds

253

veins

return blood to heart

254

what kind of muscle are areteries made of

smooth

255

name 3 things vessels contain

muscle
elastic fibers
collagen

256

name 3 things collagen provide

flexibility
strength
control

257

what do the elastic fibers in arteries do

recoil

258

what do veins do differently than arteries

stretch

259

what are the thinnest types of vessels

capillaries

260

why are capillaries thin?

to promote diffusion

261

is there muscle in capillaries

no

262

what do capillary beds have a TON of

SURFACE AREA

263

perfused

containing blood flow

264

what percentage of capillaries are perfused at rest

25

265

sphincter

ring of muscle that regulkates blood flow into capillaries

266

where is most of the blood located and baout what oercentage

the veins and baout 64

267

what part of the CNS releases neurons to squeeze veins

the sympathetic

268

how do veins prevent backflow

valves

269

name 2 types of venous assitance

skeletal muscle
respitory pump

270

whta helps veins move against gravioty

skeletal muscle

271

how does the resp pump help venular blood flow

by creating pressure differences

272

are all fluid compartments in the body connected?

YES

273

what do you use to measure gas levels in blood

arteries

274

what is the better diagnostic zone to check for everything but gas levels

veins

275

name 3 venous resevres

skin
liver
lungs

276

2 symptoms of vericose veins

blood pooling in stretched lower veins
breaking or separating valves

277

name 4 things the blood can transport

gas
nutrients
hormones
metabolic waste