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Flashcards in Geog361 Final Deck (94):
1

name 4 bivariate quantitative visual variables

size
lightness
spacing
saturation

2

name 4 bivariate qualitative visual variables

hue
shape
orientation
arrangement

3

describe distortion that occurs to latitude and longitude lines when they approach the poles
(in most projections)

the longitudes are often widened
the latitude lines are often compressed

4

name three examples of great circles

equator
prime meridian
international date line

5

on what kind of projection are latitude and longitude lines always parallel

there is NO projection where this occurs
lat and long lines are only parallel on globes

6

what does an azimuthal projection preserve

directions from a standard point

7

what is an orthographic

a projection made to look like a sphere

8

what is the goal when selecting standard lines

to place them in a way that minimizes distortion for the area of interest

9

what is a standard line

where the developable surface is touching the spheroid

10

where will a transverse cylinder's standard line run

N to S on a meridian

11

what will a gnomonic projection preserve

the places you would fly over between 2 points

12

what happens when you run a simplify function on a line

points will be removed from the line

13

what happens when you run a smooth function on a line

points will be added to the line in order to reduce angularity

14

what does aggregation mean (outside the context of ArcGIS)

multiple points will be represented by an area at a smaller scale

15

what will a collapse function do

it will turn an area into a point
for example: the city footprint of Washington, DC may be turned into a star (point feature)

16

what does displacement do

it will move a feature or area farther from another feature or area in order to make the two distinct from one another
For example, one may push an island farther from a coastline at a smaller scale in order to accentuate the island.

17

what is exaggeration

increasing the size of a feature if it is important
the classic example is cape cod

18

example of enchance

rather than simply having road lines intersect river lines, add a bridge symbol to the road lines in order to enhance them

19

what is leading

separating the baseline between 2 words in a stacked label

20

what is the scale of a locator map compared to the main map

the locator map is at a smaller scale

21

what is the scale of an inset map compared to the main map and the locator map

the scale of the inset will be larger than both the locator and main map

22

name the four spatial dimension

point
area
line
volume

23

name the four variables of a model

discrete, continuous, abrupt, smooth

24

name the four levels of measurement

nominal
ordinal
interval
ratio

25

what is the model of a proportional symbol map

discrete and abrupt

26

what is the model of a dot density map

discrete and smooth

27

what is the model of a choropleth map

continuous and abrupt

28

what is the model of an isopleth map

continuous and smooth

29

what are the two parts of a bivariate combo

a quantitative and qualitative component

30

how do you create a porportional symbol for a linear bar

divide by the minimum value

31

how do you create a proportional symbol for areal symbols

take the square root and divide by minimum value

32

how do you create a proportional symbol for volume symbols

take the cubed root and divide by min

33

name the three basic color schemes

sequential
diverging
qualitative

34

how does a sequential color scheme work

values are simply high to low and often represented by the lightness of a color
an example would be amount of rainfall

35

what is the hallmark of a diverging color scheme

it has a meaningful central point
colors would go from dark to light to dark again
an example would be change in temperature

36

how do you set hue in an rgb scheme?

by setting proportion of RGB
the higher proportion will be the color represented
for example
r=240
g=120
b=80
would display a more red color

37

how do you set the lightness in a rgb color scheme

the overall value of the rgb values

38

how do you set the saturation within an rgb scale

it is set using the lowest of the rgb values

39

equal interval

equal ranges in the data
max-min/ (#intervals)

40

quantile

equal observations per class
#observations/#classes

41

standard deviation

the mean plus/minus a given number of standard deviations

42

natural breaks

done by eye or algorithms

43

what are the 2 main goals of a natural break classification

minimizing intraclass differences and maximizing interclass differences

44

when describing the type of model, do we refer to the phenomena or the representation of it

the phenomena itself

45

nominal data

named data with no natural order

46

ordinal data

non number data with a natural order
for example (bad, better, best)

47

interval data

has a "meaningless" zero
temperature celsius

48

ratio data

will not include negative values
has a meaningful zero
height of children

49

what will an overall high rgb value do to lightness

it will be very light
the higher the rgb the lighter the value

50

how many font size points exist per inch

72

51

hue color separation is good for _____, while saturation is good for ______

classes
subclasses

52

gestalt principle

how humans perceive individual concepts as a whole

53

discrete phenomena

occurs at distinct locations with space between separating elements

54

continuous phenomena

occurs throughout geographic area of interest

55

example of abrupt phenomena

changes in electoral votes across states

56

example of smooth phenomena

precipitation throughout a region

57

dichromats

cannot see any difference between red and green

58

trichromats

have difficulty distinguishing between red and green

59

three steps to setting and rgb color value

set hue using proportion and highest rgb value
set lightness using a higher value of your optimal color
set saturation using the lowest of the rgb numbers

60

what is the name of the most common line simplification algorithm

douglas peucker

61

seperable

capable of being attended to independently of other dimensions

62

integral

cannot be processed without interference from other dimensions

63

configural

chracteristics of both inegral and seperable
new image or emerging properties may form

64

what should contours be used for

detailed metric elevation info

65

what should hypsometric tints be used for

relative elevation info

66

what should hill shading be used for

perception of overall landform shapes and backgrounds

67

does an isoline have to be a contour

no, it only means any line of equal value

68

isometric

true values at points

69

isoplethic

derived from area data to show conceptual form

70

interpolation

estimating data values in areas between known value
this can be done with isolines and grid data alike

71

name three developable surfaces

cylinder, cone, plane

72

what are the three projection classes

cylindrical
conic
planar (animuthal)

73

name four different projection aspects

equatorial
transverse
polar
oblique

74

name two different projection cases

tangent(simple)
secant

75

the 6 cases where you'll want to generalize

congestion
coalescence
conflict
complication
inconsistency
imperceptibility

76

4 steps of generalization

select
simplify
classify
symbolize

77

3 subclasses of generalization

content
geometry
symbolize

78

3 ways to generalize content

add
eliminate
reclassify

79

aggregate

replacement of many features with a representative feature of INCREASED dimensionality

80

collapse

replacement of a feature with a representative feature of LOWER dimensiuonality

81

merge

replacement of a feature with a representative feature of EQUAL dimensionality
AMALGAMATE

82

displace

adjustment of a feature to avoid coalescence with adjacent feature while maintaining topology

83

exagerrate

amplification of a portion of a feature to emphasize a characteristic aspect of it

84

smooth

removal of small variations in the geometry of a feature to improve its appearance

85

what were 2 recommendations put forth for USGS terrain representation

use a 5 point illumination model
add a 10% transparency to hillshade layer in order to allow curvature model to appear

86

what are the 5 illumination points recommended for the USGS terrain

NE
N
NW
W
SE

87

point label placement order (1-6)

NE
SW
NW
SW
N
S

88

what is a breakline

when a label interferes with a line like a road. you can break the line with the font using a halo
contour lines commonly breaklines

89

name a few good color choices for the color blind

red blue
orange blue
brown blue
yellow blue
blue gray

90

induction

the problem that occurs when contrast of background makes you perceive colors differently in foreground

91

what will an overall higher magnitdue of colors equal

a lighter color

92

how can you change the saturation in an RGB scheme

lower the lowest of the color values

93

what are the three steps to RGB setup

set hue
set lightness
set saturation

94

do equal steps in RGB numbers mean equal visual steps

they do not, larger number steps are required for changes in darker colors (low numbers)