GEOG363 EXAM 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GEOG363 EXAM 2 Deck (60)
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1
Q

majority of cost and time in building a GIS

A

data preparation/building the database

2
Q

on screen digitizing

A

“heads up” with vectors

3
Q

what will happen to digitizing errors as you increase the scale of the map

A

the error will increase proportionate to the increase in map scale

little errors in the large scale can mean huge scales in small scale maps

4
Q

name 5 types of positional errors

A
  1. undershooting/overshooting nodes
  2. open polygons
  3. missing nodes
  4. self intersecting lines
  5. sliver polygons
5
Q

what does snap tolerance do?

A

it snaps undershot nodes to lines through buffers

6
Q

what to options do we have to correct positional error

A
  1. redraw

2. choose master boundary

7
Q

registration

A

when layers spatially coincide

8
Q

name 2 examples of post-processes

A
  1. smoothing

2. spline - interpolates curves to reduce jaggedness of edges

9
Q

name 3 sources of rasters

A
  1. scanned maps
  2. remote sensing
  3. statistical surfaces
10
Q

what is the difference between an image and a photograph

A

photographs are specific to images that are on film

11
Q

unreferenced raster refers to…

A

when coordinate values to position an image are missing

12
Q

regular raster distortion (3)

A

image is out of:

  1. scale
  2. shift
  3. rotation
13
Q

irregular raster distortion (2)

A
  1. terrain

2. flight conditions

14
Q

what do we call fixing regular and irregular raster distortion

A

orthoimagery

15
Q

affine transformation

A

preserving the parallel nature of lines and ratio of distances

16
Q

collinear

A

any number of points can be said to be collinear if a straight line can pass through them all

17
Q

3 types of affine transformation and define them

A
  1. translation (sliding)
  2. rotation
  3. dilation (scaling)
18
Q

what kind of distortions are affine transformations good for?

A

regular

19
Q

what kind of distortions are higher order polynomials good for?

A

irregular

20
Q

RMSE

A

root mean square error

a measure of precision between true and computed coordinates of points

NOT ACCURACY

21
Q

nearest neighbor

A

assigns output cell value from nearest corresponding input cell

22
Q

bilinear interpolation

A

uses nearest cell and next closest 3 to get a weighted average

23
Q

what does georeferencing develop in order to transform all cells of a raster

A

equations

24
Q

difference between a database and DBMS

A

DBMS allows access and understanding of data

25
Q

name 5 things DBMS can offer that databases cannot

A
  1. locking
  2. rights
  3. views
  4. back ups
  5. monitoring
26
Q

what does n-tier architecture describe

A

allows users (web users [upper tirer]) to access data (in a database [bottom tier]) to interpret data without accessing the data itself

27
Q

how can multiple tables be joined?

A

through a common unique ID attribute

28
Q

what kind of algebra is used in query language?

A

relational algebra

29
Q

name and define 4 different hings that can be done with relational algebra

A
  1. intersect - in both tables
  2. union - add two tables
  3. difference - take away from one table
  4. join - link tables through a key attribute
30
Q

SQL and define

A

Structured Query Language is a special programming language used to manage data in a RDBMS

31
Q

Primary key

A

one column that contains a unique value for every row in the table

32
Q

what is something primary keys can be used for

A

cross referencing two different tables - here it acts as a foreign key

33
Q

3 rules of tables

A
  1. cannot be 2 identical rows
  2. there must be a primary key
  3. the primary key may not contain any null values
34
Q

functional dependency

A

an attribute is functionally dependent if it is determined by the value of another attribute

35
Q

local spatial operations

A

one input for one output

36
Q

neighborhood spatial operations

A

local and nearby input influence output

37
Q

global spatial operations

A

entire input layer is used to determine each local output

38
Q

dissolve operation

A

features with same attribute value are merged

creation of aggregated polygons

39
Q

2 most important tools of GIS analysis

A

buffers and overlays

40
Q

how were overlays done back in the day

A

with transparent copies

41
Q

father of GIS

A

Dr. Roger Tomlinson

42
Q

overlays combine data to do what two things?

A

join attributes or filter out data

43
Q

what 3 things must be done before working with overlays?

A
  1. georegistered
  2. same resolution
  3. functionally related
44
Q

what will overlays that combine different vector geometries result in?

A

a layer with a lower dimensional geometry

45
Q

what are network structures used for?

A

to represent features such as roads, pipelines, rivers, etc

46
Q

name 2 things network analysis can be used for

A

route selection

resource allocation

47
Q

geocoding and its problem

A

linear referencing of addresses along road features

NOT ALL BUILDINGS ARE OF EQUAL SIZE OR SHAPE

48
Q

gazetteers

A

place name directories that contain spatial information and feature type

pizza shop is here

49
Q

ontology

A

classification of feature types

50
Q

what does reclassification do to new values

A

makes the resulting class more generalized

51
Q

MAUP and define

A

Modifiable Areal Unit Problem

Changing the size or shape of an object can alter the values in the classes

52
Q

natural break classes

A

minimize intraclass differences and maximize interclass differences

53
Q

spectral signature and example

A

certain things in a remote senses photograph have a specific color

EG water is blue

54
Q

georectification

A

adding control points to photos to make them accurate

55
Q

transit costs

A

weight used to make models that use attribute data to weigh distances

56
Q

equal area

A

take x classes and make sure that they have the same area

57
Q

what do thematic maps emphasize?

A

attributes

often only one or a few

58
Q

what do reference maps emphasize

A

features

often many features

59
Q

ecological fallacy

A

to assume that a generalized statistic refers to an individual within a population

60
Q

name 3 types of vector buffera

A

simple
compound
nested