GEOG363 EXAM 1 Flashcards Preview

College! > GEOG363 EXAM 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in GEOG363 EXAM 1 Deck (57):
1

data integration

bringing different sets together to be used

2

what does visualization do?

it reveals hidden relationships between things to communicate ideas

3

geoprocessing

computing data onto a map

4

hipsometric

different colors describing different elevations

5

Eucledian space is also known as

cartesian coordinates

6

tuple

ordered set of numbers EG (x,y)

7

topology

ignores metric details and idenitfies relational structures or how things relate in space

8

discrete

has defiend edges

9

continuoes

does not have defined edges

10

what type of map is discrete and has object view

vector

11

what type of map is continous and has field view

raster

12

tesselations

pixels

13

interval data

continuous data that can be negative

14

ratio

has a natural zero EG height

15

3 componenets of geospatial data

spatial
thematic
temporal

16

what 2 things define vector data

magnitudew and direction

17

3 components of 3 tubule

lat long and height

18

node

has start, endpoint, intersection
is a special case of a vertx

19

vertex

simply a point on a line

20

what do rows represent

features

21

what do columns represent

attributes of features

22

what do spherical coordinates measure

angles with lambda and phi

23

name 2 great circles on earth

the equator and the prime meridian+int date line

24

name 2 examples of small circles on earth

the tropics of capricorn and cancer

25

what is the difference in the way the prime meridian and the equator are determined

the equator has right angles to the earth's axis and the prime meridian is arbitrary

26

how is a geoid determined

it is the physical model that is based on surface gravitational pull

27

datum

a set of reference points

28

datum shift

differences in coordinates between datum

29

planimetric

accurate with cartesian coordniates

30

azimute

defines the direction you are facing in degrees

31

aspect

position from which projection is centered and viewed

32

transversal rotation

rotating the globe so that north and south aren't up and down

33

what does conformality preserve

azimuths or direction and angles

34

preserves area in projections

equivalence

35

tissot indicotric

circles that represent distortion in projections

36

if circles are circular what is being preserved

conformity

37

if circles remain the same size that preserve...

equivalence

38

what 2 things do cartesian systems have

a fixed origin and coordinates

39

generalization

simplifying detailed lines when decreasing scale

40

what is the most common shape of a tessellation

square

41

2 terms that refer to pixels of raster images

cells or more rarely grid elements

42

whta is the smallest distinguishgable unit in a raster

a cell

43

nyquist shannnon smapling theory and which sub-field of GIS does it relate to

resolution should be atleast 1/2 as fine as the smallest image we wish to detect

remote sensing

44

Any cell rule

always continuous but wider line

45

Near center rule

Thin line but may be discontinuous

46

what does post processing do

smooth lines when converting from raster to vector

47

bit-depth

how many bits

48

TIN

triangulated irrwegular network

49

Vector models produce smaller data sets
● Topological relations are better handled using vectors
● Analysis is simpler on raster data in many cases
● Overlays are simple in the raster model
● TINs provide flexible facet sizes (efficiency)

k

50

what do horizontal datums describe

points against which latitude and longitude can be measured

51

what do vertical datums describes

points against which heigh or depth can be measured

52

what is the most popular datum system and what two giants use it?

WGS 84

google earth and gps

53

why does datum shift occur

different datum points use different best fit ellipsoids of earth to best describe specific areas

54

rhumb or loxodrome

a course of constant bearing used by mariners

55

2 important properties of the Lambert conformal conic

it is true along 2 standard parallels and works for a country's east to west expanse

56

name 3 properties of the UTM

1. good for north to south expanse
2. are 6 degrees wide
3. origin is 500,000 meters west of central meridian (EQUATOR IS ZERO IN NORTHERN HEMISPHERE AND ANTARCTICE IS ZERO IN SOUTHERN

57

gnomonic map projection

turns great circles into straight lines tangentally.