BIO141 Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

College! > BIO141 Exam 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in BIO141 Exam 3 Deck (119):
1

What 2 things are is blood msotly made of?

Plasma and Red Blood Cells

2

What kind of structure do red blood cells have and what does this do

they are bi concave and add surface area

3

why are red blood cells slightly flexible

to enter capillaries

4

do rbcs have organelles?

no

5

lifespane of RBCs

120 days

6

another name for RBCs

erthyroctyes

7

what makes an RBC red

hemoglobin

8

what is heme

pigment

9

what molecule does heme have on it and what does it do

Fe atom that holds Ocygen

10

color and name of high oxygen blood

bright red oxyhemoglobin

11

color and name of low oxygen blood

dark red deoxyhemoglobin

12

how many protein chains are in hemoglobin and what kinds are they

4
2 alpha
2 beta

13

how many hemes are in each protein chain of a hemoglobin

1

14

2 things to cause anemia

low hemoglobin or low functioning RBCs

15

name 3 symptoms of anemia

lethargy
weakness
tiredness

16

how does blood loss anemia occur

RBCs are lost due to hemmorage

17

NSAIDs

non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs

18

what drug can cause stomach and gi bleeding

aspirin

19

most common form of anemia and what happens

iron deficiency anemia
not enough iron to make heme which carries o2

20

pernicious anemia and what is causes

low B12 causes low RBC production

21

describe what happens with sickle cell

mutation in one amino acid of beta chain in hemoglobin causes mutation. RBCs become fragile and rigid and stick together

22

RBC production

erythropoesis

23

what 2 hormones stimulate erythropoesis

peptide hormone erythropoetin
androgens - testorterone

24

what stimulates EPO

low oxygen in blood

25

which gender has more RBC

Men

26

where are RBCs made?

bone marrow

27

Where are the o2 sensors for blood

kidneys

28

what is the major problem with blood doping

in increases the viscosity of blood with more RBCs and makes it harder to pump

29

hemostasis

the process of stopping blood or bleeding

30

what is released during the vascular phase and what does it do?

endothelial which constricts smooth muscle to slow blood flow

31

what occurs during platelet phase?

plateletes release chemicals causing sticking and agregating near endothelian surfaces

32

what two things are needed during the coagulation phase and what do they create

Ca and vitamin k that produce fibrin

33

what are the three hemostasis phases in order

vascular
platelet
coagulation

34

fucntion of conducting system

to bring air from outside deep into lungs

35

3 functions of nose and nasal cavaity

clean, warm, and humidify air

36

function of the pharnyx

same as the nasal cavaity

37

function of larnyx and cooquial

the adam's apple keeps food and water out oflugs

38

function of trachea

moving and cleaning air toward lungs with cilia

39

name parts of the bronchi tree

primary bronchi
secondary bronchi
tertiaty bronchi
bronchilkoes

40

terminal bronchioles

respitory bronchioles

41

where does gas exchange occur

across the membrnaes of the alveoli

42

respitory membrne

where the alveoli meet capillaries and gas exchange occurs

43

function of surfactant

keeps alveoli walls from connecting and collapsing by lowering water molecule attraction

44

what occurs when a baby is born before alveoli start producing surfactant

infant respitory distress syndrome

45

what kind of bonds does surfactant interfere with

hydrogen bonds

46

pressure within the lungs

intrapulmonary pressure

47

boyle's law

as volume increases, pressure decreases

48

do the lungs contain muscle tissue

NO

49

connective tissue lining the lungs

visceral pleura

50

connective tissue lining the inside of your chest

pareital pleura

51

what causes the visceral and pertial plera to connect

pleural fluid

52

what do you do when the diaphragm contracts

inhale

53

where is the respitory control center located

medulla oblongota and pons

54

what do proprioreceptors in your joints do?

get action potentials sent from resp control center to increase rate of breathing EVEN BEFORE ocygen is depleted

55

what three things do chemoreceptors monitor and which 2 are the most iportant

oxygen, c02, and hydrogen

c02 and hydrogen are the most important

56

what happens when carbon dioxide mixes with water

carbonic acid is created

57

carbonic acid

h2co3

58

beside carbonic acid, what could water and c02 turn into

one molecule of bicarbonate and on ehydrogen ion

59

bicarbonate

hc03

60

what causes hypercapnia

c02 concentration in bloood is too high

61

what happens when their is too much c02 in the blood

the carbonic acid equation runs to the right, resulting in more hydrogen and making the blood too acidic
respitory acidosis

62

hypocapnia

c02 concentrations in blood are too low

63

what happens when their is too little c02 in the blood

the carbonic equations runs to the left resulting in too little hydrogen and the blood becoming more alkaline
respitoary alkalosis

64

where are the most important hydrogen sensors located?

the cerebral spnial fluid

65

how does the medulla oblongata react to high c02 in the CSF

by sending more action potentials to increase breathing rate

66

partial pressure

amount of pressure exerted by one gas

67

what is the dirving force moving blood through capillaries ?

gases moving down their concentration gradients

68

does the balancing of the carbonic equation require ATP

NO!

69

what systekm does the lymphatic system parallel

the circulatory system

70

what are the 2 parts of the lymphatic system?

organs and tissues that produce and maintain immune cells

71

name the 6 tpyes of tissues involved in lympathic system

lymph nodes
lymph vessels
spleen
thymus
tonsils
bone marrow

72

how much blood will leak into lymphatic systems?

about 20%

73

interstatial fluid and importancer?

`basically blood and it flows through lymphs

74

leukocyte

white blood cells

75

edema

swelling

76

fluid, cells, and debris within lymph

lymph fluid

77

name three functions of the lymph

ambush pathogens with leukocytes
filter lymph
trigger other areas of immune system

78

elephantasis

a parasite inbfects lymph vessels and prevents reabsorption

79

name the 2 specificn types of the immune system

cell mediated resistance
antibody mediated resistance

80

name 2 important specific cells

b and t cells

81

name 2 lymphocyctes

b and t cells

82

all cytes, phils beside lymphocytes are what?

non specific

83

name 2 types of external barriers

chemical and physical bariers

84

what kind of resistance t cells

cell mediated

85

what kind of resisitance b cells

antibody mediated

86

what kind of non specific cells are important for specific immunity

phagocytes

87

what chemical is produced in relation to immunological survelliance

perforin

88

what triggers the complement system

when antibodies are attached to antigens

89

what does the complement system do

creates pores in antigens that result in a swell explosion

90

hyperemia

increased blood flow

91

what does bradykinin do

causes pain

92

what do pyrogens do and what are they released by

they raise body temp and are released by macrophages

93

antigen

anything that your immune system identifies as foriegn

94

what else does hyperemia increase aside from body temperature

metabolic rate of cells

95

what do the liver and spleen do during a fever?

hoard iron and zinc

96

what is the first of the 2 keys involved in a specific immune response

the docking of the marcophage onto the t cell for costimulation

97

what is the second part of the 2 key system involved in an immune response

the release of cytokines

98

what happens when both keys are activated

the new t cell begins mitosis

99

what is the difference between mhc1 and mhc2

mhc1 proteins put an antigen on its membrane that says kill me where mhc2 proteins show the cell and make it FIND AND DESTROY

100

how do you activate cytotoxic t cells

an inactive infected t cell must get with an inactive memory t cell

101

what are the 2 steps to b cell activation

an antigen must bind to an MHC2 complex on the b cell antibody
the b cell must then combine with a helper t cell for costimulation

102

agglutination

antibodies stick multiple antigens together so they cannot be transported throughout body

103

where does specific resposne occur

the lymph nodes

104

active immunity

when both memory b and memory b cells are ready to fight

105

passive immunity

when you receive somebody elses antibodies

106

what is the difference between an antigen and a pathogen

an antigen is like a toxin that could be given off by a pathogen

107

what specifically do antibodies kill

antigens

108

what happens when a b cell binds to an antigen

it turns into plasma that secrets antibodies

109

what is salivary amylase

an enzyme released by your salivary glands that begins to break down carbs into glucose

110

name 4 parts of the saliva

water
mucous
salivary emylase
lingual lipase

111

lingual lipase

not activated until it hits the acid rich stomach

112

muscle contractions in the esophogas

peristalis

113

a mixture of food and gastric secretions

chyme

114

name 3 parts of gastric secretions

mucus
hcl
pepsinogen

115

what doe shcl in the stomach do

begins to unravel proteins and moves pepsinogen to pepsin DENATURE

116

what does pepsin do

it unravels amino acid chains

117

ring of muscle at the top of the stomach

cardiac sphincter

118

what is the hormone released by the stomach

gastrin

119

what regulates food going from the stomach into the small intestines

the pyloric sphincter