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Flashcards in GEOG110 Exam 2 Deck (65):
1

name the 5 fog types

advection
radiation (ground/morning fog)
upslope (valley fog)
frontal
autumn-steam

2

what fog type involves cold air moving over a warm surface

autumn-steam

3

how is fog formed in the 4 popular fog types

by warm air moving over a cool surface and raising relative humidity

4

name the 3 types of convection processes

strong heating at earth's surface
forced convection
slantwise convection

5

strong heating at earth's surface

upward moving air that forms cumulus clouds

6

forced convection

air uplift caused by orography, coastlines, or large urban areas

7

slantwise convection

occurs along fronts

8

why are adiabatic processes possible?

air is a poor conductor of heat

9

what are the 3 types of ELR?

normal - decrease in temp with increase height
inverted - increase in temp with increase height
isotherm - temps remains same with height

10

what rate does temp normally decrease at

-.8 C / 100m or -8 C / 1km

11

what are the 2 adiabatic lapse rates

dry (unsaturated) RH

12

what is the condensation level

the level where clouds form

13

dry ALR

-1 C / 100 m

14

wet ALR

-.6 C / 100m

15

why is dry ALR a conserved quantity and why is WLR not?

the rate is the same weather rising or falling when dry
when wet a heat source is required to raise the air through evaporation (this heat source lowers the W-ALR)

16

what type of weather does sinking air indicate

fair weather and a stable atmosphere

17

what type of weather does rising air indicate

thunderstorms and unstable atmosphere

18

what does it mean when the ELR = ALR

neutral atmosphere (rare)

19

what is the level of free convection?

where the air in parcel is warmer than ELR and continues to rise
creates an unstable atmosphere and cumuloforms

20

what kinds of clouds are stable?

startiform

21

sensible heating and where?

heat gained or lost due to temp changes across surfaces (deserts)

22

latent heating and where?

heat gained or loss due to phase change of water (jungles)

23

latent heat and energy taken from environment

evaporation

24

latent heat and energy released into environment

condensation

25

why is there relative humidity

the air can hold different levels of moisture depending on the temperature

26

dew point

temperature of condesation

27

what happens to relative humidity when air temperature is increased?

the relative humidity goes down (feels less humid)

28

what happens to relative humidity when air temperature is decreased?

the relative humidity goes up (feels more humid)

29

name the three processes that form clouds

contact cooling (fog)
air mass mixing (cold fronts)
adiabatic cooling (air rising and cooling)

30

cloud associated with moist, but stable air

stratus

31

cloud associated with unstable air

cumulus

32

cloud associated with neutral air

lenticular or lee wave

33

both ALR and WALR are to the right of the ELR

absolute instability or superadiabatic

34

both ALR and WALR are to the left of the ELR

absolute stability or inversion

35

how do nocturnal thunderstorms develop

clouds that form during the day give off long wave radiation to the atmosphere at night. when they lose this heat the thunderstorms form

36

name to quasi forms of precipitation

dew and frost

37

what is precipitation that evaporates before hitting the ground

virga

38

what is the itcz

inter tropic convergence zone

39

what controls snowfall in the western US

orography

40

what controls snowfall in the eastern us

mostly controlled by zones but some lake effect and ororgaphy

41

what are the three stages of thunderstorm development

cumulus
cumulonimbus
dissipation

42

name three elements of the first stage of thunderstorm development

vertical cloud development
air rising through cloud
freezing isotherm is pushed up symmetrically

43

cumulonimbus stage of thunderstorm

precipitation begins
asymmetrical isotherms
updraft of warm air
downdraft of cooled air (wind shear)

44

what is special about -40 C

it is the same as - 40 F and is the temperature where water freezes instantaneously

45

dissipating stage

anvil cloud
asymmetrical anvil shows dominant wind direction
no more rising air
cool air sinking

46

6 types of thunderstorms

air mass
frontal cyclonic
orographic
cold-storm
nocturnal
convergence

47

air mass thunderstorms

humid diurnal heat
summer afternoon

48

frontal cyclonic

thunderstorms that develop near cold fronts

49

orographic thunderstorms

due to mountains
high alt = more sun
warm air is pushed up by mountain

50

cold-storm

cold air moving over warm surface
typical of US west coast

51

convergence

two breezes running toward each other, nowhere to go but up
typical of florida

52

where do the most thunderstorms on earth occur?

west/central africa

53

what is the maritime continent?

indonesia, malysia, and new guinea

54

does subsidence promote evaporation or condensation

evaporation

55

name a climactic event associated with forced drought

ENSO

56

what is the usual or long term state of the atmosphere

conditional

57

what is the area of soil where there is nod difference between night and day temps

damping depth

58

any water based thing that falls from the air

hydrometeor

59

where would there be high PE and low AE

deserts

60

where would there be high PE and high AE

lake mead

61

where would there be low PE and low AE

arctic

62

Can AE be higher than PE

no, never

63

fetch

horizontal distance exposed to the wind

64

where is precip greatest in the mid latitudes with respect to ororgaphy

at the highest point of the mountain

65

where is precip the greatest in the tropics with respect to orography

the middle point of the mountain