Flashcards in Plant Biology: Exam 1 Deck (95):
Have nucleus and are most animals and plants
Prokaryotes lack nucleus
Do not flower
Sets of instructions
DNA and RNA
Translates DNA and RNA
Cells only need
Protoplasm, cytoplasm, cytosol
DNA or RNA
DNA is transcribed to RNA which is translated from ribosomes to protein
Golgi body is like a cellular
Vacuoles account for this in cells
Storage and disposal
Example of gymnosperm
Water in cells that make a plant have structure
What can Dcmu and cyanide do to a plant
Disturb the electron transport chain and photosynthesis
Using chemical energy to fix carbon dioxide ultimately as sugar
The complete breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide in presence if oxygen to form
Where does glycolysis occur
In the cytoplasm
What is glycolysis?
Taking glucose( a 6 carbon sugar), breaking it into 2, an capturing energy (ATP
If there is no oxygen available for respiration, what happens?
Results of fermentation:
Lactic acid, alcohol, co2
Respiration uses the
Kreb's cycle and electron flow for high ATP
Fixes carbon dioxide using products of "light reactions"
Light, co2, and water
O2, ATP, sugars
Where do light reactions occur?
The thylakoids membrane
What is a photo system?
Pigments working together to pass an electron to one that will accept it
What is needed in the Calvin benson cycle?
Rubp - sugar
Rubisco - enzyme
ATP and Nadh - energy
What does the Calvin benson cycle do?
Coverts carbon dioxide into sugar
Where do c4 plants thrive
The 4 biologically usable energy forms
What dies the electron transport chain do?
Sets up an electrical chemical gradient
3 parts of a chloroplast?
How does a plant get carbon dioxide?
Cam plants separate co2 fixation in:
C4 plants separate co2fixation in:
What kind of plant closes stomata at night?
Bundle sheath cells and mesothelioma are in these plants:
What is the stroma?
The space between the thylakoids and outer chloroplast membranes
Ability of a single cell to become any other cell in an organism
5 kinds of tissue:
Roots, shoots, leaves, reproductive
Two cotyledons: d/m
Flower parts in 4/5: dm
Net like lead venation: dm
Vascular and cork cambium: dm
Vascular bundles in a ring: dm
Has a tap root : dm
One cotyledon: dm
Flower parts in 3: dm
Parallel leaf venation: dm
No vascular/cork cambium: dm
Scattered vascular bundles: dm
Fibrous roots: dm
Apical meristems account for what growth?
Lateral meristems account for what growth
Parenchyma has what kind of cell wall
What type if tissue is parenchyma?
Collencyhma have what walls that do what?
Primary walls that provide flexible support
Sclerenchyma have what kind of cell walls?
They have both primary and secondary. The secondary is highly liginified.
A type of sclerid:
Pear it's gritty
Xylem transports what?
Both phloem and xylem provide?
Transport and support
Where are tracheids found and are they alive?
The xylem and no
How are tracheids stacked?
Side to side
What kind if walls do tracheids have?
Secondary liginified walls
Are vessel elements alive and where are they found?
No, in the xylem
How are vessel elements different than tracheids
They are wider, have thinner walks, and stack end to end
Where are sieve tube elements and what do they do?
Phloem and they conduct water in angiosperms
How are sieve tube elements stacked?
End to end
Are sieve tube elements alive at maturity?
What is a companion cell?
A cell near sieve tube element that loads and unloads sugars
Dermal tissue of herbaceous plants;
One cell later epidermis
Dermal tissue of Woody plants
A multicellular periderm
What is he pericycle?
The lateral meristem found inside the endodermis
Has an x shaped endodermis?
What does a monicker have in it's root that differs from a dicot?
Where do cells divide?
The root apical meristem
What us the primary way roots grow?
Elongation, not division
What is the rootcap's function?
To protect the apical meristem
From where do root hairs come?
Dicot stems have vascular bundles...
Arranged in rings
Monocot stems have vascular bundles...
Monocot stems are messy
Dicot stems are organized
What does an intercalary meristem do?
Allows us to mow our lawns
Are secondary meristems lateral or vertical?
Where do annual growth rings come from?
In vascular cambiums, what goes out and what pushes in
Phloem pushes out
Xylem pushes in
Single leaf per blade
More than one leaf per blade
What dies a dicot have that a monocut lacks?
How do the stomata differ in monocots and doctors?
The distribution in monocots is more even. Dicots have most of their stomata on the bottom
What are c4 plants a response to