Plant Biology: Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Plant Biology: Exam 1 Deck (95)
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0
Q

Eukaryotes

A

Have nucleus and are most animals and plants

1
Q

Angiosperms

A

Flowering plants

2
Q

Prokaryotes lack nucleus

Bacteria

A

.

3
Q

Gymnosperms

A

Do not flower

4
Q

Sets of instructions

A

DNA and RNA

5
Q

Translates DNA and RNA

A

Ribosomes

6
Q

Cells only need

A

Membrane
Protoplasm, cytoplasm, cytosol
DNA or RNA
Ribosomes

7
Q

Central dogma

A

DNA is transcribed to RNA which is translated from ribosomes to protein

8
Q

Golgi body is like a cellular

A

Subway

9
Q

Mitochondria

A

Energy!

10
Q

Vacuoles account for this in cells

A

Storage and disposal

11
Q

Gymnosperms

A

Naked seeds

12
Q

Example of gymnosperm

A

Pine

13
Q

Turgor pressure

A

Water in cells that make a plant have structure

14
Q

What can Dcmu and cyanide do to a plant

A

Disturb the electron transport chain and photosynthesis

15
Q

Calvin-benson cycle

A

Using chemical energy to fix carbon dioxide ultimately as sugar

16
Q

Respiration

A

The complete breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide in presence if oxygen to form

ATP

17
Q

Where does glycolysis occur

A

In the cytoplasm

18
Q

What is glycolysis?

A

Taking glucose( a 6 carbon sugar), breaking it into 2, an capturing energy (ATP

19
Q

If there is no oxygen available for respiration, what happens?

A

Fermentation

20
Q

Results of fermentation:

A

Lactic acid, alcohol, co2

21
Q

Respiration uses the

A

Kreb’s cycle and electron flow for high ATP

22
Q

Calvin cycle

A

Fixes carbon dioxide using products of “light reactions”

23
Q

Photosynthesis inputs:

A

Light, co2, and water

24
Q

Photosynthesis outputs:

A

O2, ATP, sugars

25
Q

Where do light reactions occur?

A

The thylakoids membrane

26
Q

What is a photo system?

A

Pigments working together to pass an electron to one that will accept it

27
Q

What is needed in the Calvin benson cycle?

A

Rubp - sugar
Rubisco - enzyme
ATP and Nadh - energy

28
Q

What does the Calvin benson cycle do?

A

Coverts carbon dioxide into sugar

29
Q

Where do c4 plants thrive

A

Arid regions

30
Q

The 4 biologically usable energy forms

A

Light
Electrons
Chemical gradients
Chemical bonds

31
Q

What dies the electron transport chain do?

A

Sets up an electrical chemical gradient

32
Q

3 parts of a chloroplast?

A

Thylakoids
Grana
Stroma

33
Q

How does a plant get carbon dioxide?

A

Stomata

34
Q

Cam plants separate co2 fixation in:

A

Time

35
Q

C4 plants separate co2fixation in:

A

Space

36
Q

What kind of plant closes stomata at night?

A

CAM

37
Q

Bundle sheath cells and mesothelioma are in these plants:

A

C4

38
Q

What is the stroma?

A

The space between the thylakoids and outer chloroplast membranes

39
Q

Totipotency?

A

Ability of a single cell to become any other cell in an organism

40
Q

5 kinds of tissue:

A

Roots, shoots, leaves, reproductive

41
Q

Two cotyledons: d/m

A

Dicot

42
Q

Flower parts in 4/5: dm

A

Dicot

43
Q

Net like lead venation: dm

A

Dicot

44
Q

Vascular and cork cambium: dm

A

Dicot

45
Q

Vascular bundles in a ring: dm

A

Dicot

46
Q

Has a tap root : dm

A

Dicot

47
Q

One cotyledon: dm

A

Monocot

48
Q

Flower parts in 3: dm

A

Monocot

49
Q

Parallel leaf venation: dm

A

Monocot

50
Q

No vascular/cork cambium: dm

A

Monocot

51
Q

Scattered vascular bundles: dm

A

Monocots

52
Q

Fibrous roots: dm

A

Monocots

53
Q

3 tissues

A

Dermal
Vascular
Ground

54
Q

Apical meristems account for what growth?

A

Vertical

55
Q

Lateral meristems account for what growth

A

Girth lateral

56
Q

Parenchyma has what kind of cell wall

A

Primary

57
Q

What type if tissue is parenchyma?

A

Ground

58
Q

Collencyhma have what walls that do what?

A

Primary walls that provide flexible support

59
Q

Sclerenchyma have what kind of cell walls?

A

They have both primary and secondary. The secondary is highly liginified.

60
Q

A type of sclerid:

A

Pear it’s gritty

61
Q

Xylem transports what?

A

Water

62
Q

Phloem transports…

A

Sugar

63
Q

Both phloem and xylem provide?

A

Transport and support

64
Q

Where are tracheids found and are they alive?

A

The xylem and no

65
Q

How are tracheids stacked?

A

Side to side

66
Q

What kind if walls do tracheids have?

A

Secondary liginified walls

67
Q

Are vessel elements alive and where are they found?

A

No, in the xylem

68
Q

How are vessel elements different than tracheids

A

They are wider, have thinner walks, and stack end to end

69
Q

Where are sieve tube elements and what do they do?

A

Phloem and they conduct water in angiosperms

70
Q

How are sieve tube elements stacked?

A

End to end

71
Q

Are sieve tube elements alive at maturity?

A

Yes

72
Q

What is a companion cell?

A

A cell near sieve tube element that loads and unloads sugars

73
Q

Dermal tissue of herbaceous plants;

A

One cell later epidermis

74
Q

Dermal tissue of Woody plants

A

A multicellular periderm

75
Q

What is he pericycle?

A

The lateral meristem found inside the endodermis

76
Q

Has an x shaped endodermis?

A

Dicot root

77
Q

What does a monicker have in it’s root that differs from a dicot?

A

Central pith

78
Q

Where do cells divide?

A

The root apical meristem

79
Q

What us the primary way roots grow?

A

Elongation, not division

80
Q

What is the rootcap’s function?

A

To protect the apical meristem

81
Q

From where do root hairs come?

A

The pericycle

82
Q

Dicot stems have vascular bundles…

A

Arranged in rings

83
Q

Monocot stems have vascular bundles…

A

Scattered

84
Q

Monocot stems are messy

A

Dicot stems are organized

85
Q

What does an intercalary meristem do?

A

Allows us to mow our lawns

86
Q

Are secondary meristems lateral or vertical?

A

Lateral

87
Q

Where do annual growth rings come from?

A

Secondary meristems

88
Q

In vascular cambiums, what goes out and what pushes in

A

Phloem pushes out

Xylem pushes in

89
Q

Single leaf per blade

A

Simple leaf

90
Q

More than one leaf per blade

A

Compound

91
Q

What dies a dicot have that a monocut lacks?

A

Palisade layer

92
Q

How do the stomata differ in monocots and doctors?

A

The distribution in monocots is more even. Dicots have most of their stomata on the bottom

93
Q

What are c4 plants a response to

A

Photo respiration

94
Q

What kind of plant cell tissue is often toto potent

A

Parenchyma