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Flashcards in Bio Med - Day 4a Deck (41)
1

Inflammation of the stomach lining (either Acute or Chronic)

Gastritis

2

Acute Gastritis, which rapidly develops, can be due to what

NSAID use
Alcohol
H. pylori infection
Stress from severe illness (e.g., burns, CNS injury, etc.)

3

Type A Chronic Gastritis occurs in the _______, and is due to autoantibodies in the parietal cells. It also accounts for ________% of Chronic Gastritis

Fundus
10

4

What type of anemia is caused by Type A Chronic Gastritis, and what other conditions is it associated with

Pernicious Anemia
Thyroiditis
Gastric Adenocarcinoma

5

Type B Chronic Gastritis (accounts for 90% of Chronic Gatritis), occurs in the _______, and is most likely due to ________ use, or _________ infection

Antrum
NSAID
H. pylori

6

What is the Pernicious Anemia due to in relationship to Gastritis

Lack of Intrinsic factor which is required for Vit B12 absorption

7

Histamine 1 Drugs, and what they do
(H1 receptor blockers)

Diphenhydramine
Mepyramine Maleate
Promethazine
Hydrochloride
Pheniramine Maleate
Antazoline

***These drugs treat allergic reactions

8

Histamine 1 Drugs, and what they do
(H1 receptor blockers)

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl, Nytol, Dramamine)
Mepyramine Maleate
Promethazine (Phenergan, Phenadoz, Promethean)
Hydrochloride
Pheniramine Maleate (Avil)
Antazoline

***These drugs treat allergic reactions

9

Histamine 2 Drugs, and what they do
(H2 receptor blockers)

Cimetidine (Tagamet)
Burimamide
Metiamide
Ranitidine (Zantac)
Nazitinidine (Axid)
Famotinidine (Pepcid)

***To reduce Gastric Acid and Release; H2 receptors are in the stomach

10

What is PUD, Peptic Ulcer Disease

Damage to the Gastric to Duodenal mucosa; caused by impaired mucosal defense, or increased acidic acid contents

11

What is the main cause of PUD

H. Pylori

12

Other causes of PUD

Corticosteroid
NSAID
Alcohol
Tabacco

13

With Duodenal Ulcers _____ is the causative factor in 90% of cases.
Pain ________ with meals

H. pylori
Decrease

14

With Gastric Ulcers _____ is the causative factor in 70% of cases.
Pain ________ with meals

H. pylori
Greater

15

How are PUD diagnosed

Upper endoscopy with biopsy
H. pylori test via Urea Breath testing

16

Complications of PUD

hint "HOPI"

Hemorrhage
Obstruction
Perforation - (can lead to Peritonitis)
Intractable Pain

17

Risk Factor for Duodenal Ulcer EXCEPT

A. Smoke
B. Alcohol
C. H. pylori
D. Blood type A

D. Blood Type A

***It is actually Blood Type O that is a risk factor

18

A 56 yo female was recently diagnosed with Osteoarthritis. Two months later, she started having abdominal pain that worsens with the consumption of food. What is the likely diagnosis

A. Gastric Ulcer
B. Duodenal Ulcer
C. Crohn's Disease
D. Ulcerative Colitis

A. Gastric Ulcer

19

Which rare condition characterized by _______ producing tumors in the duodenum and/or pancreas that leads to an over production of the hormone _______

Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
gastrin

20

With ZES, what hormone increase in the body leads to more recurrent/intractable ulcers in the Duodenum and the Stomach

Gastrin - it creates a release of more gastric acid

21

What wil a patient present with that suffers from ZES

Unresponsive, gnawing, burning abdominal pain
Diarrhea
Nausea
Vomiting
fatigue
weakness
Weight loss
GI bleeding

22

How is ZES diagnosed

Measuring the fasting Gastrin levels

23

Hormones that regulate digestion - Source & Target
Gastrin - _______ - _________
Secretin - _______ - _________
Cholecystokinin - _________ - ________
Gastric Inhibitory Peptide - _______ - _______

Stomach - Stomach
Duodenum - Pancreas/Liver
Duodenum - Pancreas/Gallbladder
Duodenum - Stomach

24

IBS is an idiopathic _______ disorder that is characterized by changes in bowel habits that ______ with stress as well as abdominal pain that is _______ by bowel movement

Functional
Increase
Relieved

***Liver Qi Stagnation

25

5 Signs and Symptoms with IBS

Chronic Abdominal Pain
Discomfort
Bloating
Alteration of Bowel Habits (constipation then diarrhea)
Feeling of incomplete evacuation (Tenesmus)

26

Half of all patients with IBS have comorbid ________ disturbance

A. Cardiac
B. Pulmonic
C. Hematologic
D. Psychiatric

D. Psychiatric

27

Damage to the lower portion of the tube that connects the mouth and stomach (esophagus); people with GERD can develop this

Barrett's esophagus

28

A patient with GERD should avoid all EXCEPT

A. Caffeine
B. Alcohol
C. Nicotine
D. H2 receptor antagonists

D. H2 receptor antagonists

29

Imaging techniques to diagnose GERD EXCEPT

A. Barium Swallow
B. Upper Endoscopy with Biopsy
C. 24 hr pH monitoring
D. Hysteroscopy

D. Hysteroscopy

30

Abnormal changes (metaplasia) in the cells of the lower portion of the esophagus

A. pheochromocytoma
B. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
C. Barretts Esophagus
D. Hiatal Hernia

C. Barretts Esophagus

31

POUND mnemonic for Migraine HA symptoms (Key Words)

P = Pulsatile
O = One - day duration (or more)
U = Unilateral
N = Nausea
D = Disabling

***Specific trigger = food; light; sound
***Most common in Females

32

Symptoms for Cluster HA

Unilateral
lasts 15mins to 3hrs
Repetitive and Brief in nature
Excruciating peri-orbital pain
Accompanied by Lacrimation and Rhinorrhea

33

Tx for Cluster HA

Give patient 100% Oxygen
Sumatriptan (drug)

34

Tension HA symptoms

Bi - lateral
lasts 30mins to 4-6 hrs
Constant steady pain
no photophobia
no aura

35

Tx for Tension HA

NSAID
Acetaminophen
analgesics

36

20 Year old female develops HA after drinking Red Wine

A. Migraine
B. Cluster
C. Tension
D. Sinus

A. Migraine

37

Classic Migraine

A. Unilateral preceded by visual aura
B. Unilateral without preceding aura
C. Bilateral, preceded by a visual aura
D. Bilateral, without preceding aura

A. Unilateral preceded by visual aura

38

Classic Migraine is ______ and is preceded by an _____
Common Migraine is ________ and is not preceded by an _______

Unilateral, aura
Bilateral, aura

39

35 year old male wakes up repeatedly during the night unilateral peri-orbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral lacrimation

A. Migraine HA
B. Cluster HA
C. Tension HA
D. Sinus HA

B. Cluster HA

40

30 year old female complains of HA at the endow the day. Worsens with stress, and massage improves it.A tight band of pain on the head, not associated with triggers

Tension HA

41

Most common headache diagnosed in adults

Tension HA