Cancer Flashcards Preview

CMS > Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Deck (60):
1

what is the main way cancer develops?

genetic predisposition mixed with environmental factors gives uncontrolled proliferation and a cancer forms

2

what are some systemic features of cancer?

cachexia
ectopic hormone production - PTH hypercalcaemia, or ACTH - cushings disease
parneoplastic syndromes - neurological/dermatomyocitis, venous thromboses

3

techniques for diagnosis of cancer?

imaging - CT/MRI
fibre optic techniques - endoscopy/bronchoscopy/biopsy

4

what are some staging techniques for cancer diagnosis?

TNM - tumour node metastases - clarify prognosis, survival, defines tx
Ann arbor - lymphoma staging
Dukes ABCD - colorectal carcinomas

5

what is the main action of chemotherapy?

interferes with cellular replication by targeting DNA or cell division

6

side effects effect rapid dividing cells such as?

GI or oral mucosa
bone marrow
hair
reproductive cells

7

chemo is often a combination of agents, why is this better?

different modes of action
less chance of resistance
less toxicity

8

how is chemo used combined with or as an adjuvent to surgery?

pre surgery - reduce tumour load
post surgery - reduce sub clinical disease

9

what cancers can a course of chemo cure?

hodgkins lymphoma
testicular teratoma
acute childhood leukemia

10

chemo can be used as a contribution to care and to prolong life expectancy in what cancers?

small cell carcinoma of the lung
breast carcinoma
adult leukemia
ovarian cancer

11

chemo can be used as palliation in what cancers?

GI tract
non small cell lung cancer
cervical carcinoma
squamous carcinomas of the head and neck

12

what are some general short term side effects of chemo?

nausea
vomiting
diarrhea
alopecia

13

what are some short term side effects of chemo caused by bone marrow suppression?

1. neutropenia - high infection risk, least wbc's 7-9 days after chemo, oral infections
2. thrombocytopenia = bleeding tendancies
3. anaemia

14

what long term side effects can chemo cause?

impaired fertility
teratogenic
cancer - leukemia
organ damage - pulmonary fibrosis, cardiomyopathy, neuropathy

15

how can chemo be used as hormone therapy?

in breast and prostate cancers
non curative

16

how does radiotherapy work?

affects rapidly dividing cells - targeted to specific areas

17

how is radiotherapy delivered?

externally - linear accelerator
internal - implant/systemic - taken up by specific organs e.g strontium by bone, iodine 131 by thyroid

18

what are some short term side effects of radiotherapy?

oral mucositis
diarrhea
nausea
tired
hair loss
bm suppression
sunburn

19

what are some long term effects of radiotherapy?

osteoradionecrosis
xerostomia
skin ulcers
fibrosis
bowel stenosis
secondary malignancies

20

what are some novel therapies in cancer treatment?

1. immunotherapy -vaccines, cytokines
2. angiogenesis inhibitors
3. signal inhibitors - specific inhibition of mutated proteins
4. gene therapy - insert correct functioning versions of damaged genes
5. phototherapy - tumour takes up dye, killed by laser

21

what is the aetiology of lung cancer?

biggest killer/poor outlool/almost totally avoidable
90% due to smoking, can also be caused by passive smoking

22

local signs of lung cancer?

cough/chest pain/breathless/chest infections

23

where can lung cancer metastasise to?

bones
brain
liver

24

what are some systemic signs of lung cancer?

cachexia
hormonal - high calcium/low sodium

25

how is lung cancer diagnosed?
how is it treated?

CXR/CT/bronchoscopy/sputum cytology
surgery/chemo/radio/laser

26

what is the 5yr survival for lung cancer?
can it be screened for?

10%
screening under investigation

27

what is the aetiology of colorectal cancer?

disease of western lifestyle, 2nd most common cause of death, partially preventable

28

risk factors in lifestyle that contribute to colorectal cancer development?

diet high in fat and low in fibre
familial - genes
inflammatory bowel disease

29

what are local signs of colorectal cancer?

anaemia
altered bowel habits
acute abdomen

30

where can colorectal cancer metastasise to?

liver
lungs
ascites

31

what is a systemic sign of colorectal cancer?

cachexia

32

how is colorectal cancer diagnosed?
how is it treated?

sigmoid/colonoscopy, barium swallow
surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy

33

what is the survival like for colorectal cancer?
can it be screened for?

90% 5 yr survival stage I,

34

what is the aetiology of breast cancer?

1 in 12 women
no 1-2 in women
relatively young pts

35

risk factors of breast cancer?

familial - genes
hormonal - no children/early periods/late menopause/no breastfeeding/HRT

36

what are local signs of breast cancer?

puckering, pain, discharge, lump

37

where can breast cancer metastasise to?

bone
brain
liver

38

what are some systemic signs of breast cancer?

cachexia
hypercalcaemia

39

how is breast cancer diagnosed?
how is it treated?

mammogram/tissue diagnosis - fine needle aspiration/biopsy
surgery/chemo/radio/hormonal - osetrogen inhibition

40

how is breast cancer screened for?

mammograms every 3 years for women 50-70yrs
self exams promoted

41

aetiology of prostate cancer?

1 in 3 men
80% of 80 + yr olds

42

local signs of prostate cancer?

detected on pr exam
confused with normal urinary changes in elderly
found at operation for urinary symptoms

43

where can prostate cancer metastasise to?

bone
lungs

44

how is prostate cancer diagnosed?
how is it treated?

biopsy/prostate specific antigen
surgery/radio/hormonal - inhibit testosterone

45

how to screen for prostate cancer?

look for prostate specific antigen

46

aetiology of oseophageal cancer?
risk factors?

increasing frequency
poor outlook
- smoking/alcohol/reflux

47

local signs of oseophageal cancer?

dysphagia
pain
anaemia

48

where can oseophageal cancer metastasise to?

lymphadenopathy
liver

49

systemic signs of oseophageal cancer?

cachexia

50

how is oseophageal cancer diagnosed?
how is it treated?

endoscopy/barium swallow
surgery/radio/laser/endoscopic dilation

51

survival rate of oseophageal cancer?
can it be screened for?

52

aetiology of stomach cancer?

reducing frequency
risks with Hpylori, prev gastrectomy, age, smoking

53

what are local signs of stomach cancer?

local fullness, vomitting, pain, anaemia

54

where can stomach cancer metastasise to?

lymph nodes, liver, ascites

55

how is stomach cancer diagnosed?
how is it treated?

endoscopy
surgery/radiotherapy/chemotherapy

56

what is the survival rate of stomach cancer?
how can it be screened for?

57

aetiology of cerebral cancers?

10% of all tumours - 60% primary, 40% secondary

58

what are some local signs of a cerebral cancer?

focal defecit - limb weakness, cranial nerve palsy
impaired co ordination
headache - raised intracranial pressure, local invasion
seizures
endocrine effects

59

how are cerebral cancers diagnosed?
how are they treated?

CT, MRI
surgery, radiotherapy, steroids, anti epileptics, hormone blocking medications

60

prognosis of cerebral tumours?

prognosis depends on site