Flashcards in Respiratory Medicine Deck (63)
what are the three main disturbances that can happen to the respiratory system?
reduced transfer of oxygen
reduced ventilation of lungs
reduced perfusion of lungs
what are some respiratory symptoms?
breathlessness dyspanea - b/c 3 main disturbances
wheeze - airways narrowing
cough - protective reflex
chest pain - pleuritic pain
what is asthma?
reversible small airways obstruction
affects all ages
percent of children affected?
is asthma a benign condition?
benign but life threatening
what is the pathophysiology of asthma?
an inflammatory allergic condition
symptoms of asthma?
breathles - not always related to exerise, triggered by cold or emotion
cough - nocturnal, exercise induced, cold induced
how to assess asthma?
peak flow readings - plotted by age sex height
classically poorer in mornings - diurnal variation
asthma precipitated by?
allergens - house dust mite, pet dander
irritants - dust smoke
indications of severity of chronic asthma?
restriction of activities b/c symptoms
increased inhaler use
keep peak flow readings
how to manage chronic asthma?
inhaled beta antagonists - salbutamol - short, salmeterol - long activity
inhaled steroids - beclamethasone
combo inhalers - seretide
other - antileukotrienes - montelukast
what is acute asthma?
sudden worsening of symptoms. patients can tire
what is unstable asthma caused by?
symptoms of unstable asthma?
using inhaler more frequently
reduced exercise limit
management of unstable asthma?
GP - short course of oral steroidss
alteration to regular inhalers if gradual worsening
avoid what meds in a dental practice with asthmatic patients?
what might be seen orally with a asthmatic patient?
oral candidiasis, altered taste, dry mouth, side
what should you advise to an asthmatic patient after taking their inhalers?
gargle vigorously after use
what is COPD?
irriversible obstruction of airways
pathophysiology of COPD?
damage to lung parenchyma
main process = emphysema = alveolar destruction and reduced area for gas exchange
what is bronchitis?
symptoms of COPD?
breathless on exertion
chronic cough and sputum production
frequent infections - stagnant mucous
what are some pulmonary function tests?
FEVL = forced expiratory volume in one second
FVC = forced vital capacity
chronic COPD management?
progressive addition of oral inhaled therapies depending on symptoms - tiotropium - spiriva
if severe - home = oxygen
drug management of copd?
increase inhalers or nebulisers
how to manage a COPD patient in the dentist?
how capable is patient to lie flat
do not treat when unstable
avoid sedation - diminished respiratory reserve
how to manage acute exacerbation in the chair?
stop tx and sit pt up
avoid high flow oxygen unless v unwell
bronchodilator - spacer/nebuliser if possible
what is pneumonia?
an infection of the lung tissue
may be diffuse or affect the lobes
symptoms of pneumonia?
cough and green sputum
pleuritic chest pain