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Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Deck (43):
1

what does osteoarthritis cause? what is it an association of?

hands and weight bearing joints - hip,knees,ankles
associated with genetics, obesity, previously damaged joints/bones

2

pathophysiology of osteoarthritis?

whole joint involved
cartilage damaged - disruption of regeneration and loss
bone beneath is exposed and erosion of bony surface
progressive inflammatory destruction

3

etiology of osteoarthritis?

risk increases with age
50% of over 60's xray evidence - only 25% symptomatic
2 x more likely in women

4

symptoms of osteoarthritis?

pain - worse on movement relieved by rest
immobility - worse in mornings
swelling and deformities

5

how is osteoarthritis diagnosed?

by clinical exam
bouchards nodes medial, heberdens distal
effusion = swelling b/c of inflammation

6

radiology and osteoarthritis? MRI? arthroscopy?

radiology useful in advanced conditions does not diagnose
MRI - early cartilage injury/bone changes
arthroscopy visualises joint, aspirates synovial fluid

7

management of osteoarthritis?

lose weight, physio, analgesia
steroid injections - temp relief
joint replaced

8

dental relevance of osteoarthritis?

reduced dexterity, reduced mobility, medications

9

what is rheumatoid arthritis?

an autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology
joint destruction due to synovial inflammation
multi system disease

10

etiology of rheumatoid?

1-3% of population
3x more in women
onset between 30-50

11

initially where does rheumatoid begin?
acute rheumatoid?
established rheumatoid?

initially hands and feet, spreads to cervical spine, knees, ankles, elbows, shoulders
hot, swollen, tender joints worse in morning
deformity, restriction, sub laxation

12

clinical signs of rheumatoid?

ulnar deviation
rheumatoid nodule
z thumb
boutinniere deformity
swan neck deficiency

13

what other body systems can rheumatoid affect?

NS - peripheral neuropathy, cervical cord compression = paralysis
lungs - pulmonary fibrosis
heart failure
kidney disease
eyes inflamed
sjogrens
systemic inflammation - malaise and anemia

14

how is rheumatoid diagnosed?

clinical exam and blood tests
radiology for destructive arthritis

15

management of rheumatoid?

analgesic - NSAIDs
disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs e.g sulphasalazine, penicillamine, methotrexate, hydrochloroquinone, gold, azathioprine
corticosteroids - orally/local injection

16

non pharmacological management of rheumatoid?

surgery - joint replacement, physio - optimise joint function, occ therapy - optimise functional abilities

17

dental relevance of rheumatoid?

TMJ disease, sjogrens, hands - used to diagnose
already diagnosed - reduced dexterity, manage sjogrens, caution if cervical spine diseased, drug side effetcs esp DMARD's

18

what is systemic sclerosis?

autoimmune disease. Skin thickens and binds to underlying structures. Multi organ disease

19

etiology of systemic sclerosis?

rare
3-5x more common in women
presents in middle age

20

clinical signs of systemic sclerosis?

telangiectasia - ruptured capillaries
sclerodactyly - sclerosis of fingers
calcinosis - bony hard deposits
beaked nose
fixed expressions
radial furrowing of lips
limitation of mouth movements

21

how to diagnose systemic sclerosis?
management of?
dental relevance?

clinically/ blood tests for spec. autimmune abs
manage symptoms
oral involvement and loss of dexterity

22

what is systemic lupus erythematous?
what is discoid lupus?

autoimmune, multi system, uknow aetiology
abs against nuclear cell components
widespread vascular immune complex deposition

confined to head/neck region

23

etiology of SLE?

0.1% population. young women 20-40
more common if origin african

24

areas affected?

skin - 75% photosensitivity, butterfly rash
joints - 90% - small joint arthritis
raynauds - 20%
N.S - 60% - fits, paralysis, neuropathy, psychosis
heart - valvular disease, aseptic endocarditis 25%
lungs - 50% effusions
kidney failure - 30%

25

how to diagnose SLE?
how to treat?
dental relevance?

clinically - blood tests for spec. autoimmune abs
same meds as rheumatoid arthritis
drug side effects, reduced dexterity

26

what is gout?

accumulation of urate crystals in joints
more common in older men
precipitated by excess alcohol, starvation, certain foods, operations, drugs

27

acute gout?
chronic gout?

acute - painful joints
chronic - tophi deposition

28

what is psoriatic arthritis?

destructive arthritis associated with psoriasis

29

what is hyperparathyroidism?

excess parathyroid hormone
usually an adenoma in gland
0.1% of population

30

symptoms of hyperparathyroidism?

hypercalcaemia - malaise/depression, kidney stones, constipation, abdominal pains
bone pain

31

how to diagnose hyperparathyroidism?
how to treat?

blood tests, xrays show sub periostal erosions
parathyroidectomy/ drugs to treat

32

effects of bone resorption dentally?

giant cell lesions, loss of lamina dura around roots

33

what is pagets disease?

abnormal bone remodelling - abundant new bone formation, structually abnormal, prone to fracture
age related
10% by 90

34

symptoms of pagets?

most pt's totally asymptomatic
bone deformities - enlarged skulls, nerve compression leading to deafness, spinal cord compression
fractures

35

how to diagnose pagets?

clinically
xrays are characteristic

36

what is osetocalcaemia?

a vitamin d deficiency - lack of sunlight, poor intake, malabsorption of intestine = fat sol.vitamins
asian origin/ frail elderly

37

symptoms of osteocalcaemia?

diffuse bony pains, proximal muscle weakness

38

diagnosis of osteocalcaemia?
treatment?
dental relevance?

history taken, xrays, blood tests
increase uptake of vit d
affects tooth development in children

39

what is osteoporosis?

loss of bone and increased fracture risk
15% women aged 50, 70% of women aged 80
less common in men

40

where can fractures happen?

vertebral - pain, loss of height, kyphosis
hip - disabling, high mortality/morbidity 20% of 80 year old women
wrists - less disabling, marker of underlying osteoporosis

41

risk factors of osteoporosis?

alcohol, smoking, female, white, lack of exercise, steroids, thin, short menstrual history, malabsorption, hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism

42

management of osteoporosis?

diagnosis by DEXA screening
treated by pharmacological
calcium and vitamin D

43

side effects of bisphosphonates?

osteonecrosis of the jaw
poor oh