Medical Emergencies Flashcards Preview

CMS > Medical Emergencies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Emergencies Deck (60):
1

what is adrenal insufficiency?

after prolonged therapy with corticosteroids
a patient with adrenal insufficiency may become hypotensive under the stress of the dentist

2

what is adrenal insufficiency?

after prolonged therapy with corticosteroids
a patient with adrenal insufficiency may become hypotensive under the stress of the dentist

3

management of adrenal insufficiency?

lie flat
give 02
transfer to hospital

4

what is anaphylaxis?

severe allergic reaction
dentistry - admin of drug/after contact with gloves (latex)
more rapid onset and more profound reaction

5

signs/symptoms of anaphylaxis?

parasthesia, fluhing, swelling of face
gen itching - esp hands and feet
bronhcospasm, wheeszing, difficulty breathing
rapid weak pulse, fall in bp, pallor, cardiac arrest

6

treatment of anaphylaxis?

secure airway
restore bp by lying flat and raise feet
unconscious = recovery position
adrenaline
02
hospital

7

amount of adrenaline?
child

0.5ml adrenaline-repeat at 5 min intervals if necessary
0.15mL
0.3mL
0.5mL

8

asthma attack, responds to?

2 puffs of beta 2 agonist salbutamol 100mg

9

if pt unstable how to use inhaler?

use a large volume spacer

10

what is moderate acute asthma?

able to speak
resp breathes/min

11

mild acute asthma pulse
adult?
child 2-5?
child 5-12?

12

peak flow of adult in mod acute asthma?
child 5-12?

>50% Of predicted best
>50%

13

arterial stats in mod acute asthma should be?
monitor response for how long?

>92%
15-30 mins

14

severe acute asthma?

cant complete sentences in one breath

15

s.acute resp/min
adult
2-5yrs
5-12yrs

25
>40
>30

16

s.acute pule
adult
2-5
5-12

>110
>140
>125

17

o2 sats s.acute?

>92%

18

what is the peak flow in severe acute asthma?

33-50% of predicted best

19

what is life threatning acute asthma?

silent chest, feeble resp effot, cyanosis
hypotension
bradychardia
arrythmia
exhaustion
agitation
reduced level of consciousness
peak flow less than 33%

20

treatment of acute asthma?

high flow o2
inhaled short action beta2 via spacer

21

what is cardiac arrhythmia?

sudden reduction in CO and loss of consciousness

22

what is the pain of MI similar to?

that of angina
more severe and prolonged

23

MI signs/symptoms?

progressive onset of severe crushing pain across front of chest - pain may radiate to shoulder and down arm or into neck or jaw
skin becomes pale and clammy
naseua/vomitting are common
pulse - weak, bp may fall

24

drugs for MI?

o2
sublingual gtn may relieve pain
300 mg aspirin

25

what to do when pt having epileptic fit?

ensure pt not at risk
nothing in mouth
02
dont restrain
when conscious = recovery position
midazolam if seizure over 5 mins

26

management of adrenal insufficiency?

lie flat
give 02
transfer to hospital

27

what is anaphylaxis?

severe allergic reaction
dentistry - admin of drug/after contact with gloves (latex)
more rapid onset and more profound reaction

28

signs/symptoms of anaphylaxis?

parasthesia, fluhing, swelling of face
gen itching - esp hands and feet
bronhcospasm, wheeszing, difficulty breathing
rapid weak pulse, fall in bp, pallor, cardiac arrest

29

treatment of anaphylaxis?

secure airway
restore bp by lying flat and raise feet
unconscious = recovery position
adrenaline
02
hospital

30

amount of adrenaline?
child

0.5ml adrenaline-repeat at 5 min intervals if necessary
0.15mL
0.3mL
0.5mL

31

asthma attack, responds to?

2 puffs of beta 2 agonist salbutamol 100mg

32

if pt unstable how to use inhaler?

use a large volume spacer

33

what is moderate acute asthma?

able to speak
resp breathes/min

34

mild acute asthma pulse
adult?
child 2-5?
child 5-12?

35

peak flow of adult in mod acute asthma?
child 5-12?

>50% Of predicted best
>50%

36

arterial stats in mod acute asthma should be?
monitor response for how long?

>92%
15-30 mins

37

severe acute asthma?

cant complete sentences in one breath

38

s.acute resp/min
adult
2-5yrs
5-12yrs

25
>40
>30

39

s.acute pule
adult
2-5
5-12

>110
>140
>125

40

o2 sats s.acute?

>92%

41

what is the peak flow in severe acute asthma?

33-50% of predicted best

42

what is life threatning acute asthma?

silent chest, feeble resp effot, cyanosis
hypotension
bradychardia
arrythmia
exhaustion
agitation
reduced level of consciousness
peak flow less than 33%

43

treatment of acute asthma?

high flow o2
inhaled short action beta2 via spacer

44

what is cardiac arrhythmia?

sudden reduction in CO and loss of consciousness

45

what is the pain of MI similar to?

that of angina
more severe and prolonged

46

MI signs/symptoms?

progressive onset of severe crushing pain across front of chest - pain may radiate to shoulder and down arm or into neck or jaw
skin becomes pale and clammy
naseua/vomitting are common
pulse - weak, bp may fall

47

drugs for MI?

o2
sublingual gtn may relieve pain
300 mg aspirin

48

what to do when pt having epileptic fit?

ensure pt not at risk
nothing in mouth
02
dont restrain
when conscious = recovery position
midazolam if seizure over 5 mins

49

hypoglycaemia signs/symptoms?

shaking/trembling - sweating
pins and needles in lip/tongue
hunger - palpitation
headache - double vision
difficulty in concentration
speech slurred
confusion
change of behaviour
could be unconscious

50

give what for a hypoglycaemic attack?

glucose 10-20g by mouth
10g glucose from diet lucozade, coca cola, ribena
if necessary repeat every ten to fifteen mins

51

if pt unconscious give what?

1M/1mg glucagon

52

what is syncope?

insufficient blood suppply to brain = loss of consciousness

53

what is the most common cause of vaso vagal attack?

faint

54

fainting signs?

pallor/sweating
slow pulse
nausea/vomitting
dilated pupils
muscular twitching

55

tx of faint

lay flat
raise legs
loosen tight clothing round neck
when conscious = sweet tea

56

other causes of vaso vagal attack?

postural hypotension
stress - hyperventilating - feel faint

57

give oxygen to what patients?
what does it do?

hypoxaemic patients? increased alveolar tension and decrease work of breathing

58

oxygen aims to achieve a normal what?

02 saturation

59

acutely ill patients will have what o2 sat?

94-98%

60

patients at risk of hypercaphic respiratory failure o2 sats?

88-92%