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Flashcards in Haematology Deck (57):
1

where is the cellular component of blood produced?

marrow

2

what does a full blood count measure?

number and size of cells

3

what is the condition associated with lack of haemoglobin?

anaemia

4

cells that are too big are?
too small?

macrocytic
microcytic

5

what is WCC?

quantity of white blood cells

6

too many white blood cells?
too few?

leucocytosis
leukopenia

7

too few platelets?
too many?

thrombocytopenia
thrombocythaemia

8

what is a blood film test?

smear of red blood cells examined under a microscope

9

what is neutrophilia?

increase in neutrophil production caused by an acute infection

10

what is malaria?

red blood cells deteriorate because of parasites

11

how are bone marrow samples done?

taken from iliac crest/sternum

12

what are tests to measure coagulation?

activated prothrombin time APTT
INR

13

what pathway causes APTT?
what is a normal prothrombin time?

intrinsic pathway
12-13 secs

14

reasons for lack of haemoglobin in anaemia?

lack of raw materials
production problems
longevity problems

15

what raw materials are needed for haemoglobin to form?

iron, vit B12, folate
erythropoietin

16

why might there be a lack of iron and folic acid?

usually dietary, rarely malabsorption
increase in lack of when pregnant

17

lack of vit b12 caused by?
what kind of anaemia does it cause?

autoimmune diseases affect absorption of B12
pernicious anaemia

18

what do you see on a blood film of someone with anaemia?

very pale cells = hypochromic
micocytic smaller cells

19

why might there be production problems to do with erythropoiten?

renal failure

20

reasons for production problems do to with bone marrow ?

aplastic anaemia - no cells
chemotherapy/immunosuppressants
haematological malignancy
anaemia of chronic disease - any chronic inflam process

21

what are reasons for blood loss causing lack of haemoglobin?

bowel - majority
menstruation
trauma/post op
other organs - unusual

22

wjhat is haemolysis?

destruction of cells in circulation
e.g autoimmunity, sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia

23

lack of what raw materials cause macorcytic cells?

B12, folate deficiency

24

what are some symptoms of anaemia?

tired, weak, breathless, dizzy, palpitations

25

signs of anaemia?

pale, rapid pulse, oral feautres

26

management of anaemia?

history and exam
establish type - fbc, blood film, levels of iron, folate, b12

27

treatment of anaemia?

iron sulphate folic acid, B12
erythropoietin
severe/symptomatic - blood transfusion

28

dental - oral abnormalities caused by?
why be careful with GA?
what should you verify in an anaemic pt?

iron, b12, folate
o2 capacity reduced,
sickle cell status

29

what is a neutropenia? caused by?

an inadequate number of neutrophils
bone marrow failure, auntoimmune disease

30

what infections can occur in the mouth?

candida, viral herpes simplex, commensal bacteria

31

dentally be aware of what? do to with white blood cell disorders

chemo pts - bone marrow affected
be aware of who is at risk
avoid invasive tx

32

what is leukemia?

proliferation of immature cells in blood/bone marrow

33

what is lymphoma?

proliferation of lymphocytes
confined to nodes, liver, spleen, bone marrow

34

acute leukaemia, acute - common in who? what is seen on a blood film?

kids
full of lymphocytes

35

chronic leukaemia, common in who?

adults
can transform to acute

36

increased risk of what with leukaemia?

risk of infection, anaemia, bleeding

37

types of lymphoma?

hodgkins, non hodgkins

38

hodgkins lymphoma systemic factors?

lymphadenopathy
fever, weight loss, night sweats

39

non hodgkins common in?
prognosis?

older pt's
poorer

40

tx of lymphoma?

transfusions, infection management
chemo
radio
bone marrow transplant - autologous, allogenic
novel therapies

41

dental relevance of lymphomas?

atypical infections, bleeding, lymphadenopathy, gum infiltration

42

what does rate of coagulation depend on?

number and functioning ability of platelets

43

3 stages of a clot formation?

vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, coagulation cascade

44

problems with platelets forming?

deficiencys of raw materials
production - bone marrow failure
destruction - immune mediated

45

immune mediated conditions causing platelet destruction?

portal hypertension - spleen sequestrian
auntoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura

46

aggregation problems - reason? tx?

platelet function impaired/ medical therapy - aspririn or copidogrel
tx of underlying cause
platelet transfusion maybe necessary

47

coagulation cascade problems?
gen deficiency ?
specific deficiency?

gen - protein - liver disease/malnutrition
spec. - coagulation - haemophilia, von wilebrands disease
drugs - warfarin/heparin

48

what is haemophilia A? B?

A - x lined genetic disorder - absence of VIII clotting factor
B - " , IX clotting factor

49

what is von wilebrands disease?

autosomal dominant - platelet factor VIII function problem

50

tx of lack of clotting factors?

factor replacement, prophylactic

51

what does DDAVP do?

increases factor VIII levels

52

what does tranexamic acid do?

inhibits clot breakdown

53

dentally, what to be aware of with pt's with coagulation problems?

risk management, trauma avoidance, prep for suspected bleeding
associated conditions - HIV, hepatitis

54

what is warfarin used for?

atrial fib, heart valves, PE, DVT
interferes with clotting factor activity
INR checked

55

what is heparin used for?

DVT, PE
injectable

56

what is - petechiae, purpura, ecchymoses?

cutaneous bleeding
larger bleeds
brusing bc bleeding

57

what is menhagva? haemoturina?

excess menstrual bleeding
urinary tract bleeding