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Flashcards in Haematology Deck (57)
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1

where is the cellular component of blood produced?

marrow

2

what does a full blood count measure?

number and size of cells

3

what is the condition associated with lack of haemoglobin?

anaemia

4

cells that are too big are?
too small?

macrocytic
microcytic

5

what is WCC?

quantity of white blood cells

6

too many white blood cells?
too few?

leucocytosis
leukopenia

7

too few platelets?
too many?

thrombocytopenia
thrombocythaemia

8

what is a blood film test?

smear of red blood cells examined under a microscope

9

what is neutrophilia?

increase in neutrophil production caused by an acute infection

10

what is malaria?

red blood cells deteriorate because of parasites

11

how are bone marrow samples done?

taken from iliac crest/sternum

12

what are tests to measure coagulation?

activated prothrombin time APTT
INR

13

what pathway causes APTT?
what is a normal prothrombin time?

intrinsic pathway
12-13 secs

14

reasons for lack of haemoglobin in anaemia?

lack of raw materials
production problems
longevity problems

15

what raw materials are needed for haemoglobin to form?

iron, vit B12, folate
erythropoietin

16

why might there be a lack of iron and folic acid?

usually dietary, rarely malabsorption
increase in lack of when pregnant

17

lack of vit b12 caused by?
what kind of anaemia does it cause?

autoimmune diseases affect absorption of B12
pernicious anaemia

18

what do you see on a blood film of someone with anaemia?

very pale cells = hypochromic
micocytic smaller cells

19

why might there be production problems to do with erythropoiten?

renal failure

20

reasons for production problems do to with bone marrow ?

aplastic anaemia - no cells
chemotherapy/immunosuppressants
haematological malignancy
anaemia of chronic disease - any chronic inflam process

21

what are reasons for blood loss causing lack of haemoglobin?

bowel - majority
menstruation
trauma/post op
other organs - unusual

22

wjhat is haemolysis?

destruction of cells in circulation
e.g autoimmunity, sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia

23

lack of what raw materials cause macorcytic cells?

B12, folate deficiency

24

what are some symptoms of anaemia?

tired, weak, breathless, dizzy, palpitations

25

signs of anaemia?

pale, rapid pulse, oral feautres

26

management of anaemia?

history and exam
establish type - fbc, blood film, levels of iron, folate, b12

27

treatment of anaemia?

iron sulphate folic acid, B12
erythropoietin
severe/symptomatic - blood transfusion

28

dental - oral abnormalities caused by?
why be careful with GA?
what should you verify in an anaemic pt?

iron, b12, folate
o2 capacity reduced,
sickle cell status

29

what is a neutropenia? caused by?

an inadequate number of neutrophils
bone marrow failure, auntoimmune disease

30

what infections can occur in the mouth?

candida, viral herpes simplex, commensal bacteria